13th Meeting of the Conference of the Parties | Ramsar
Biological Diversity and the fourth meeting of the marine protected areas by The “Bonn Agenda on Global Biodiversity” adopted to give political guidance on the CBD process, Eligible Parties are invited to notify the CBD Secretariat about 'candidate sites' needed for the completion of their. 22 Elections of IUCN President and Council . The five themes of the IUCN World Conservation . biodiversity and ecosystems to meet peoples' needs. Twenty years after the world agreed to the Convention on Biological Conference of the Parties in India reveals sprawling meeting the viewpoint expressed by presidential candidate Mitt Romney that.
Here, the double-edged role of gene flow is of key importance Stockwell et al. Gene flow increases genetic variation within populations, limiting inbreeding depression and increasing evolutionary potential genetic rescue; Tallmon et al. Under habitat degradation and fragmentation, the restoration of population connectivity and gene flow might be a management option. However, uncritical application of artificial gene flow can also have negative consequences — for example if recently fragmented populations have diverged appreciably, efforts to initiate or restore gene flow could result in diminished adaptation and increased risk of extinction.
Because the optimal amount of gene flow in a metapopulation will depend on a variety of factors, including the degree to which subpopulations are adapted to local conditions McKay and Lattathe design of connectivity-enhancement measures would benefit strongly from an explicit consideration and subsequent monitoring of the genetic makeup of and evolutionary dynamics in target populations.
The evolving metacommunity framework also has important implications for the interplay between climate change and conservation policies. Because local adaptation, dispersal, and community ecology interact to determine responses to climate change, the impact of management actions affecting any of these components will affect their responses to climate change Urban While enhancing landscape connectivity and gene flow probably represents a valid measure to enhance adaptation to climate change through the shift of spatial ranges and distributionsits effects on the adaptation of resident species and populations are not necessary beneficial Urban The message is that, if the need to foster evolutionary resilience against climate change is taken at heart, conservation policies should act on target species well before these have lost most of their genetic diversity and evolutionary potential.
Knowledge on the evolutionary potential and actual responses of exotic species is critically important to predict the likelihood of biological invasions and manage their spread and impact. Besides facilitating the invasion process and exacerbating its impact on native species, contemporary evolution often works against attempted control measures. Without the inclusion of treatments that reduce evolutionary potential in the target species, traditional control measures such as the application of herbicides and pesticides to control weeds may exert strong selection on the target species and result in the evolution of resistance Stockwell et al.
In addition, and depending on whether increased gene flow is expected to increase or decrease the rate of contemporary adaptation, control programmes could either target the disconnection or the interconnection of local populations of established invaders Stockwell et al.
From its very onset, the discrepancy between its objectives and resources was broadly acknowledged. This decision presented conservation scientists with one of their most significant challenges.
This challenge was not circumscribed to the design and implementation of the policies necessary to achieve his goal; it also included the necessity to incorporate an independent, transparent, credible and robust scientific assessment of the potential success of such policies — that is how rates of biodiversity loss changed from to The 3rd Global Biodiversity Outlook provided evidence that despite the efforts made, pressures on biodiversity have increased overall.
The Strategic Plan has a detailed series of goals and milestones, as well as capacity-development elements, including resource mobilization.
Hyderabad Biodiversity Conference - Wikipedia
A detailed analysis of such goals reveals numerous opportunities to introduce policy-relevant evolutionary thinking summarized in Table 2. Given the importance of fostering evolutionary resilience in the face of global change, however, a more strategic step would be to incorporate such topic as one of the Cross-Cutting Issues which develop work on key matters of relevance to the seven thematic programmes established by the Conference of the Parties; see Appendix S1 for details.
The creation of a CCI for eco-evolutionary processes could certainly boost a major change of perspective in biodiversity policy, broadening its scope from the reactive conservation of rare and endangered species to the proactive management of the network of eco-evolutionary processes that may ensure their long-term survival in the face of global change.
People are aware of the values of biodiversity and the steps they can take to conserve and use it sustainably Emphasize the dynamic nature of biodiversity, and the contribution of evolutionary processes to its genesis and maintenance T2. Biodiversity values have been integrated into national and local development and poverty reduction strategies and planning processes and are being incorporated into national accounting, as appropriate, and reporting systems Explore the potential contribution of genetic resources to local development and poverty alleviation T3.
Incentives, including subsidies, harmful to biodiversity are eliminated, phased out or reformed to minimize or avoid negative impacts, and positive incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity are developed and applied, consistent and in harmony with the Convention and other relevant international obligations, taking into account national socio economic conditions Pay due attention to the contribution of evolutionary processes to the positive or negative effects of certain incentives and regulations — concerning, for example, hunting and angling, pest and invasive-species control, and captive breeding programmes T4.
Governments, business and stakeholders at all levels have taken steps to achieve or have implemented plans for sustainable production and consumption and have kept the impacts of use of natural resources well within safe ecological limits Incorporate knowledge on evolutionary effects to the design of sustainable fisheries and agricultural practices T5. The rate of loss of all natural habitats, including forests, is at least halved and where feasible brought close to zero, and degradation and fragmentation is significantly reduced Inform policies with knowledge about the effect of landscape structure and matrix characteristics on the connectivity, gene flow, genetic structure and associated evolutionary processes of target species or populations T6.
All fish and invertebrate stocks and aquatic plants are managed and harvested sustainably, legally and applying ecosystem-based approaches, so that overfishing is avoided, recovery plans and measures are in place for all depleted species, fisheries have no significant adverse impacts on threatened species and vulnerable ecosystems, and the impacts of fisheries on stocks, species and ecosystems are within safe ecological limits Incorporate knowledge on evolutionary effects e.
Areas under agriculture, aquaculture and forestry are managed sustainably, ensuring conservation of biodiversity Incorporate knowledge on evolutionary effects e. Pollution, including from excess nutrients, has been brought to levels that are not detrimental to ecosystem function and biodiversity Pay due attention to the effect of emergent contaminants, particularly those acting as genetic or endocrine disruptors T9. Invasive alien species and pathways are identified and prioritized, priority species are controlled or eradicated, and measures are in place to manage pathways to prevent their introduction and establishment Incorporate knowledge on the evolutionary responses of exotic species to the design of protocols for the prevention e.
The multiple anthropogenic pressures on coral reefs, and other vulnerable ecosystems impacted by climate change or ocean acidification, are minimized, so as to maintain their integrity and functioning T The extinction of known threatened species has been prevented, and their conservation status, particularly of those most in decline, has been improved and sustained Inform in and ex situ conservation programmes for threatened species with small population numbers, so that measures taken to maintain genetic variation do not supersede adaptive evolution to present conditions.
Provide techniques and processes allowing for the consideration of adaptive genetic variation in conservation policies T The genetic diversity of cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and of wild relatives, including other socio-economically as well as culturally valuable species, is maintained, and strategies have been developed and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity Incorporate the maintenance of and best practices for artificial-selection processes responsible for the generation and preservation of existing genetic variation in domesticated species and wild relatives, to current strategies for the conservation of their genetic diversity T The EU called for enhanced use of the guidelines on biodiversity and tourism development.
Brazil and Ecuador suggested inviting the World Tourism Organization and other relevant organizations to cooperate on identifying critical tourism and conservation hotspots. It requests the Secretariat to: Belarus proposed calling on parties to step up activities related to the UN Decade and report on them annually.
They also agreed to include a section on the Decade in the decision on review of progress in implementation of NBSAPs and related capacity-building support. The Arab Group recommended that partnership initiatives focus on national plans and actions, with financing from the private sector.
Switzerland encouraged businesses to report on their impacts on biodiversity. Delegates debated, inter alia, references related to: Mexico called for capacity building to develop local plans to implement the Aichi targets.
Singapore called for cities to develop indicators to monitor progress in implementation. Youth called for their participation in decision-making processes at all levels. Brazil and others proposed considering additional text on workers and trade unions.
Canada proposed that the Secretariat collaborate with relevant organizations to provide guidance on mainstreaming gender in all CBD work programmes; and, with the EU, opposed establishing an expert group on indicators to monitor gender mainstreaming by parties. Japan called for further discussion at COP New and Emerging Issues: China suggested that the issue could be discussed under the Biosafety Protocol.
Bolivia, the Philippines, Ecuador, Gabon and several NGOs supported text urging parties to ensure that products of synthetic biology are not released into the environment or approved for commercial use until there is adequate scientific basis for such activities.
Norway, New Zealand and Brazil favored deletion. Debate focused on language on information-gathering by the Secretariat on synthetic biology in relation to the process for SBSTTA addressing new and emerging issues; and the bracketed paragraph on a moratorium on the release or approval of synthetic genetic parts and organisms. Many delegates underscored their lack of mandate to accept a moratorium, and most preferred working on the basis of an alternative paragraph recognizing the rapid development of technologies associated with synthetic life and urging parties to apply the precautionary approach to the release of organisms and products from synthetic biology techniques.
Compromise text was developed following informal consultations, urging parties to take a precautionary approach when addressing threats of significant reduction or loss of biodiversity caused by organisms and products of synthetic biology, in accordance with domestic legislation, recognizing scientific uncertainties on the potential impacts on the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity of synthetic life, cells or genomes.
Many delegates opposed, pointing to the delicate balance of the compromise. It also urges parties to take a precautionary approach, in accordance with the preamble of the Convention and its Article 14, when addressing threats of significant reduction or loss of biodiversity posed by organisms, components and products resulting from synthetic biology, in accordance with domestic legislation and other relevant international obligations.
Japan and China cautioned against duplication of work. Brazil suggested review of proposed retirements related to Article 8 j by the Article 8 j Working Group. The Philippines questioned the basis for proposed retirements but agreed to note concerns. The EU requested a footnote that the next Article 8 j Working Group meeting is subject to availability of funding. The EU, opposed by Brazil and Ethiopia, proposed deleting text designating 13 July as the international day for local communities.
Tasks 7, 10 and The reference was kept only in the preambular text. Brazil affirmed that no continued use of repatriated knowledge should be allowed without prior informed consent and mutually agreed terms, and supported the development of best-practice guidance for international repatriation.
The African Group suggested removing brackets concerning interpreting repatriation in light of CBD Articles 8 j and 17 2 exchange of information, including TK. The Philippines and Peru recommended reference to facilitating the recovery of cultural property related to TK. The African Group proposed removing brackets around language on the repatriation of TK not impeding the continued use of such knowledge in the repatriating party. Colombia, supported by Brazil and Peru, proposed deleting the paragraph.
Following informal discussions, delegates agreed to delete the paragraph. On a list of indicative tasks for a plan of action on sustainable customary use, the African Group, Pacific Islands and Brazil supported a review of national and sub-national policies to ensure protection and encouragement of sustainable customary use.
Brazil proposed, and delegates agreed to: During the closing plenary, Colombia and Brazil expressed concern that the next meeting of the Article 8 j Working Group depends on voluntary funding, hoping that future meetings will be covered by the core budget.
CoP Biodiversity Meet - The Hindu
On capacity building, the COP requests the Secretariat to continue convening regional and subregional capacity-building workshops on the Guidelines on Biodiversity and Tourism Development; and explore facilitation of joint capacity-building workshops with other multilateral environmental agreements MEAs to promote sustainable use of biodiversity. On local communities, the COP: The COP requests the Secretariat to commission three studies on how tasks 7, 10 and 12 could best contribute to work under the Convention and the Nagoya Protocol, to be made available for the next meeting of Article 8 j Working Group.
The COP adopts terms of reference to advance task 15, emphasizing that task 15 is to be interpreted in accordance with the Convention provisions, in particular Article 8 j and Article 17 2 exchange of informationand is intended to build on, and enhance repatriation by governments and other entities, including international organizations, museums, herbaria, botanical and zoological gardens, databases, registers and genebanks.
On customary sustainable use Article 10 cas a major component of the work programme on Article 8 jthe COP requests the Secretariat to develop a draft plan of action, including a proposal for phased implementation of the plan, for consideration by the next meeting of the Article 8 j Working Group; and mandates the Working Group to provide views and advice on TK and sustainable use directly to SBSTTA on a regular basis. The COP decides that the initial tasks shall be to: An annex contains a list of indicative tasks for future consideration.
A footnote states that tasks indicated in brackets have not been considered or agreed to by parties. The EU, with Croatia, emphasized poverty alleviation and ABS, and, with South Africa, biodiversity loss in uninhabited and seasonally habited ecosystems.
The African Group called for integration of climate change adaptation and mitigation activities in island biodiversity conservation. Trinidad and Tobago called for individual and institutional training, while India suggested considering sustainable tourism practices. Madagascar proposed reference to interdependence of marine, freshwater and terrestrial resources, and South Africa suggested including estuarine resources.
It calls for continued focus on: The EU stated that ecosystem restoration should be integrated in the CBD work on specific ecosystems and, with the Republic of Korea, that it should be the last resort. Mexico cautioned that restoration should not be seen as an end in itself but rather as a long-term process subject to continuous management. Saint Lucia noted the importance of cooperation among biodiversity-related conventions.
Thailand recommended compiling degraded ecosystem inventories to identify best practices and appropriate technology for restoration.
CoP-11 Biodiversity Meet
Canada acknowledged information, capacity and financial limitations, saying it is not an excuse for lack of conservation.
India asserted the need to adopt ecologically and socio-economically sound and user-friendly restoration practices, address the causes of degradation and support natural regeneration. Peru and Colombia urged compilation of existing information. The Dominican Republic suggested that the mining sector be targeted in further development of practical guidance for restoration.
On identifying degraded ecosystems for potential restoration that may be used by ILCs, Thailand proposed promoting best practices and appropriate technology. How this has come to be is a modern lesson in the power of oligarchical segments to take over political parties. Thus, it is exceptionally easy for this corporate oligarchy to secure the 34 out of Senate votes necessary to block United States ratification of the Convention on Biological Diversity or the Law of the Sea or countless other international treaties the US sits out.
One particularly galling way these multilateral agreements are blocked in the US is by strategically spreading false rumours of the United Nations taking over key aspects of American life.
Biodiversity crisis around the world This year has sadly seen a profusion of climate-related biodiversity crises all over the world, including China and the United States, and the public narrative has not yet clearly connected the dots. Increased fossil-fuel combustion is leading to more droughts and floods and fires, which are leading to water degradation and food scarcity, which are leading to disease and violent conflict, which have the perverse overall effect of increasing greenhouse pollution and natural resource waste that perpetuate another destructive cycle.
We have created a Frankenstein monster. Biodiversity is literally the canary in the coal mine, our scientific and ethical measurement of overall environmental health. The Convention possesses diverse tools to push its nation-state members to make sustainability commitments on behalf of biodiversity.
Maybe the CBD Secretariat will draw dramatic attention to the rapidly melting Arctic ecosystem, which if left unchecked will not only mean the demise of polar bears, whales, seals and almost infinite fishing resources, but will also alter global weather and food production in ways we can scarcely imagine.
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This will only happen if citizens demand action from their respective governments.