Tigris–Euphrates river system - Wikipedia
The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers meet in the present-day country of Iraq. They begin in the country of Turkey and flow through present-day Syria, although their . Items 1 - 40 of 58 The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers are also well known for their high of transferring water from the Tigris to the Euphrates to meet demand. Unique Facts-The Tigris and Eurphrates. A mile canal links the Euphrates to the Tigris to serve as a route for river barges. A man and woman make their.
The aquatic vegetation includes reedsrushesand papyruswhich support numerous species. Areas around the Tigris and the Euphrates are very fertile. Marshy land is home to water birds, some stopping here while migrating, and some spending the winter in these marshes living off the lizards, snakes, frogs, and fish. Other animals found in these marshes are water buffalotwo endemic rodent species, antelopes and gazelles and small animals such as the jerboa and several other mammals. Play media This visualization shows variations in total water storage from normal, in millimeters, in the Tigris and Euphrates river basins, from January through December Reds represent drier conditions, while blues represent wetter conditions.
The effects of the seasons are evident, as is the major drought that hit the region in The majority of the water lost was due to reductions in groundwater caused by human activities.
Iraq suffers from desertification and soil salination due in large part to thousands of years of agricultural activity. Water and plant life are sparse. Saddam Hussein 's government water-control projects drained the inhabited marsh areas east of An Nasiriyah by drying up or diverting streams and rivers.
Shi'a Muslims were displaced under the Ba'athist regime. The destruction of the natural habitat poses serious threats to the area's wildlife populations. There are also inadequate supplies of potable water.
Tigris-Euphrates river system
The marshlands were an extensive natural wetlands ecosystem which developed over thousands of years in the Tigris—Euphrates basin and once covered 15—20, square kilometers. In60 percent of the wetlands were destroyed by Hussein's regime — drained to permit military access and greater political control of the native Marsh Arabs.
Canals, dykes and dams were built routing the water of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers around the marshes, instead of allowing water to move slowly through the marshland. After part of the Euphrates was dried up due to re-routing its water to the sea, a dam was built so water could not back up from the Tigris and sustain the former marshland. Some marshlands were burned and pipes buried underground helped to carry away water for quicker drying.
The drying of the marshes led to the disappearance of the salt-tolerant vegetation ; the plankton rich waters that fertilized surrounding soils; 52 native fish species; the wild boarred foxbuffalo and water birds of the marsh habitat.
Water dispute[ edit ] The issue of water rights became a point of contention for Iraq, Turkey and Syria beginning in the s when Turkey implemented a public-works project the GAP project aimed at harvesting the water from the Tigris and Euphrates rivers through the construction of 22 dams, for irrigation and hydroelectric energy purposes.
Although the water dispute between Turkey and Syria was more problematic, the GAP project was also perceived as a threat by Iraq. The tension between Turkey and Iraq about the issue was increased by the effect of Syria and Turkey's participation in the UN embargo against Iraq following the Gulf War.
Tigris–Euphrates river system
The name Arvand is today the name of the lower part of Tigris i. The Tigris is approximately 1, km 1, miles long, rising in the Taurus Mountains of eastern Turkey and flowing in a generally southeasterly direction until it joins the Euphrates near Al Qurna in southern Iraq.
The two rivers together form the Shatt al-Arab waterway, which empties into the Persian Gulf. The river is joined by many tributaries, including the Diyala and Zab. Baghdad, the capital of Iraq, is on the western bank of the Tigris, while the port-city of Basra straddles both the Tigris and Euphrates. In ancient times, many of the great cities of Mesopotamia stood on or near the river, drawing water from it to irrigate the civilization of the Sumerians.
Notable Tigris-side cities included Nineveh, Ctesiphon and Seleucia, while the city of Lagash was irrigated by Tigris water delivered to it via a canal dug around BC. Saddam Hussein's home town of Tikrit is also located on the river and derives its name from it.
Tigris River and Mosul Iraq The Tigris has long been an important transport route in a largely desert country. It is navigable as far as Baghdad by shallow-draft vessels but rafts are required for transport upstream to Mosul.
River trade declined in importance during the 20th century as the Basra-Baghdad-Mosul railway and roads took over much of the freight traffic.
The river is heavily dammed in both Iraq and Turkey, in order to provide water for irrigating the arid and semi-desert regions bordering the river valley. Damming has also been important for averting floods in Iraq, to which the Tigris has historically been notoriously prone following snowmelt in the Turkish mountains around April.
Recent Turkish damming of the river has been the subject of some controversy, both for its environmental effects within Turkey and its potential to reduce the flow of water downstream.
Euphrates - Wikipedia
It is formed by the union of two branches, the Kara the western Euphrateswhich rises in the highlands of eastern Turkey north of Erzerum and the Murat the eastern Euphrateswhich issues from Lake Van. The upper reaches of the Euphrates flow through steep canyons and gorges then southeast across Syria and then through Iraq. They both have their origins in Turkey. Downstream, through its whole length, the Euphrates receives no further water flow.
North of Basra, in southern Iraq, the river merges with the Tigris to form the Shatt al-Arab, which in turn empties into the Persian Gulf. The river used to divide into many channels at Basra, forming an extensive marshland, but the marshes were largely drained by the Saddam Hussein government in the s as a means of driving out the rebellious Marsh Arabs.
Since the invasion of Iraq, the drainage policy has been reversed, but it remains to be seen whether the marshes will recover.Tigris and Euphrates rivers
The Euphrates is only navigable by very shallow-draft boats, which can reach as far as the Iraqi city of Hit, located 1, miles upstream and which is only 53 meters above sea level. Above Hit, however, shoals and rapids make the river commercially unnavigable. Its annual inundation, caused by snowmelt in the mountains of Armenia, has been partly checked by new dams and reservoirs in the upper reaches.
A mile canal links the Euphrates to the Tigris to serve as a route for river barges.