Hinduism: core ideas of Brahman, Atman, Samsara and Moksha. (video) | Khan Academy
Sexual relations within a Hindu marriage are meant to be for procreation, For this reason, a husband may consult a Brahmin to purify the cloth and . If an individual were to attain moksha, through devoting one's life to on the self ( Atman) or knowledge about ultimate reality (Brahman) (Narayanan 52). Moksa is the last of the four Hindu goals of life and may be sought In this way, Uddalaka shows his son that Atman and Brahman are one. . Moksa is achieved through cutting off the self from any connection with karmic matter. http://www. ommag.info Atman and brahman are central concepts in the Hindu understanding of human being and their relationship to ultimate reality.
Two views present themselves from the Greek Orthodox Church. John Breck finds the medical criteria helpful but not definitive: Despite his disagreement with basing determinations of death exclusively on medical criteria, Hatzinikolaou goes on to state: It seems that brain death will remain open to discussion. However, from a spiritual point of view, this does not create any ethical problems to transplantations. It may be even better for it makes us transcend the scholastic certainty of a clear-cut definition of death and introduces us to the uncertainty of a risky decision.
Love cannot be expressed without taking risks! While the church has clear teachings about such matters e. These views are unified in their overarching position that each moral issues must be looked at individually.
Indeed, Orthodox moral reasoning can turn to the principle of Economia, which allows flexibility where there is a clear cut pronouncement that does not seem to be the right decision in the case at hand. Economia in canon law and in ethics authorizes exceptions to the rule without considering the exception either to set a precedent or to abrogate the rule. The justification for applying Economia is avoidance of the greater harm that would come from the strict application of the rule.
Eastern Orthodox Christianity Orthodox Catholicism, like its Roman counterpart, accepts the withdrawal of life support systems for those who are dying and quotes the Roman Catholic position on withdrawing treatment.
He goes so far as to say that in some situations withdrawing treatment is obligatory [ 45 ]: Protestant Christianities Protestantism entered the world religious scene in when Martin Luther — posted his 95 theses on the door of the Wittenberg Cathedral. Two core principles of this Protestant Reformation were the priesthood of all believers and Sola Scriptura, ideas which form the core of many contemporary forms of Protestantism.
The term, priesthood of all believers, refers to the belief that there is no separate ethic, responsibility, or ability among the believers, clergy or laity, to make moral determinations and it includes the notion that individuals are responsible for turning only to scripture and not to authority to ascertain the morality of an action. The result of Sola Scriptura is that most Protestants will not automatically turn to authoritative figures from the past to make determinations though they certainly consult them.
It is just as likely that they will turn to present day religious leaders, science, medicine, or philosophical ethics to inform their moral views when Scripture provides no clear guideline. The contemporary Anglican Communion bases its decisions on reason, scripture and tradition. The divisions continued; the result is minimally hundreds of variations of Protestant Christianity with new forms regularly emerging.
Many forms of Protestantism do not have official statements on the appropriate criteria to use in making a determination of death. For example, the resolution on Euthanasia from the Southern Baptist Convention states: Lutheran, Anglican, Presbyterians and churches belonging to the National Association of Evangelicals in Americal have more substantial writings on these issues than do the groups listed above.Brahman and Atman
The Lutheran churches The Lutheran tradition comes directly from the reformation in Germany. Today, it is organized into autonomous regional churches. It holds firmly to the original principles of the priesthood of all believers and Sola Scriptura. Lee wrote, The whole or total brain definition has the most to recommend it.
Unlike the upper or higher brain definition it does not reduce the concept of death to irreversible loss of consciousness. Nor does it violate social sensitivities in the way that the upper or higher brain death definitions does. Unlike the spontaneous heart-lung definition it does not run the risk of declaring death when consciousness is still possible.
And unlike the more inclusive heart-lung definition, it does not by implication extend the definition of human life beyond the point where integrated functioning of the organism as a whole is possible [ 52 ]. The church also publishes works by individual authors that are designed to foment discussion. The website of the Wisconsin Synod, for example features an article on brain death by Lutheran pastor, James Pope, who responds to a question regarding the validity of the concept of brain death.
Pope does not see brain death as death. Then, Pope refers the questioner to another website that argues that brain death is death [ 53 ]. Lutheran All branches of the Lutheran tradition support the right of the individual to make their own decisions which can include withdrawing mechanical support. The Lutheran Church Missouri-Synod agrees that support can be withdrawn but cedes the decision making to physicians [ 51 ]. The Anglican communion Mid-sixteenth century reforms to the Christian Church in England distinguished it from the church in Rome.
Theologian, Richard Hooker, — formulated the view that Scripture, reason and tradition were the legitimate basis for theological and ethical judgments. Provinces and national churches of the Anglican community throughout the world are connected to the Church of England through ecclesiastical structures.
Scripture is a key source for ethical analysis, including bio-ethics, and is used in conjunction with tradition, science and philosophical ethics.
There are variations across the Anglican Communion on a number of ethical issues. On the two issues under study here, however, there is considerable agreement. A study guide that was prepared in for a Canadian task force on end of life issues does not discuss the criteria for death in any detail, but does define it.
The study materials that were distributed prior to the final report included the following: Neither specifically address the issues centering on the criteria for determining death, but in the section on organ donation, it is clear that the task force agreed with medical criteria for determining death and strongly advised its members to consider living and cadaver organ donation [ 57 ].
Similar definitions appear in materials that are being distributed for the next end-of-life task force of death and dying that was formed in October, Proposed and actual changes to laws regarding physician assisted suicide are among societal factors leading to the need for a new task force. To prepare for the new examinations of the issues, Anglican ethicist, Eric Beresford, has prepared materials for the group that include papers on both sides of the issue and response forms participants are to answer after deliberating over the issues.
Anglican While clear definitions of death are hard to find in official publications, support for the withdrawal of mechanical support is clearly stated in both study guides and publications. Artificial hydration and nutrition are included in the medical interventions which can be withdrawn. Acknowledging that withdrawing treatment may be an agonizing decision for families, various Anglican writings uphold the right of the individual and family to make decisions in these cases and the Church provides resources to their congregants to support those making difficult moral decisions about the use of medical treatment [ 57 ].
Presbyterian churches - USA Presbyterian beliefs and practices are rooted in the theology of John Calvin — who saw understanding Scripture as central to Christian life. In this tradition, individuals are responsible for cultivating their own spirituality through study and reflection. The Church supports this by providing resources to help individuals understand and assess complex moral situations.
Members may find statements issued by the governing body, the General Assembly, helpful, but they are not binding. It contains reflections on scripture relating to death and dying, articles from philosophical ethics, and an extensive bibliography. Presbyterian In the General Assembly produced a position paper dealing specifically with questions about withdrawing support. It is not the goal of medicine simply to prevent death. Thus, the goal of medical care to relieve suffering remains clear even when healing or restoration is not a realistic hope.
National association of Evangelicals in America Roughly fifty denominations and fellowships belong to this association. They include a number Baptist, Lutheran, Methodist, and Pentecostal expressions that have not joined with the national associations. The Association has created a brief statement dealing with determining death. The National Association of evangelicals believes that in cases where extensive brain injury has occurred and there is clear medical indication that the patient has suffered brain death permanent unconscious stateno medical treatment can reverse the process [ 60 ].
In the further discussion, however, it makes the following statement: Brain death is not the equivalent of a coma. A patient might awaken from a coma, but not from brain death. Removal of any extraordinary life-support system at this time is morally appropriate and allows the dying process to proceed [ 60 ].
Withdrawal of mechanical support before death has been determined: Islam traces its roots to Abraham and accepts that Moses and Jesus were prophets. However Muhammad is understood to be the final prophet and the Qur'an the final revelation of God. That Islam is rooted in both Jewish and Christian thought and influenced by Greek philosophy is clear from these competing and often unclear views. These Islamic texts spend considerable time talking about death and afterlife, but not the criteria for declaring death.
If texts are silent on an issue, Islamic jurists create fiqh, legal interpretations, using principles such as the dominant probability of good or harm resulting from an act and potential societal benefit to make ethical decisions [ 61 ], p.
As in Judaism, the interpretations of text and rational arguments can vary widely since there is no one person who is vested with interpretation for the group as a whole. On occasion, when national councils are tasked with determining the morality of a contemporary moral issue, those who dissent will simply convene a new council and produce an alternative ruling. Before the advent of mechanical life support measures, there was no disagreement between physicians and clerics about the definition of death.
Hence, Muslim physicians have served a key role in applying tradition to developing medical situations. When physicians wrote in support of brain death, they relied on two Islamic traditions.
Karma in Hinduism - Wikipedia
The first was as an ancient ruling that if the king can no longer use his mind, a new king can be crowned. Since only a deceased king can be replaced, this ruling is used to justify applying brain death criteria to a potential donor. The second, more common discussion, looks to rules hunters use to determine whether an animal is dying or has died. If an animal is to be consumed by humans, Islam requires that it be slaughtered in a specific, ritual way.
If a hunted animal dies before the ritual slaughter then its meat is not halal and cannot be eaten. This idea is then applied to the determination of death in humans to argue that brain death is an appropriate vehicle for assessing that death has occurred [ 62 ], p. While there is widespread support from Islamic physicians for using neurological criteria, religious scholars overwhelmingly dispute it.
Most Muslim jurists, however, believe this cannot be ascertained medically and as a result find cardio-respiratory death the only suitable determination [ 62 ], p. For the most part, however, opinions throughout the Muslim world fall into the three categories: A summary of recent judicial decisions exemplifies the varied views. In AmmanIslamic scholars and medical experts attempted to come to agreement on the criteria for determining death.
No resolution was reached during the first session. It has provisions for both brain death and cardio-respiratory death satisfying both the clerics and scientists. A person is pronounced legally dead and consequently, all dispositions of the Islamic law in case of death apply if one of the two following conditions has been established: There is total cessation of cardiac and respiratory functions, and doctors have ruled that such cessation is irreversible.
There is total cessation of all cerebral functions and experienced specialized doctors have ruled that such cessation is irreversible and the brain has started to disintegrate [ 63 ]. In Kuwait, two councils on jurisprudence produced opposite conclusions within a short period of time — one arguing that the presence of a heartbeat always indicated that the patient was alive, one claiming neurological criteria trumped the beating heart [ 5 ], p.
The Ayatollah Khomeini, spiritual leader of Iran, pronounced as morally acceptable the use of brain death criteria only to have that rejected by Iranian Islamic jurists [ 62 ], p. Perhaps the most conflicted ruling comes from the Islamic Juridical Council who determined that an individual who met the neurological criteria for brain death was biologically dead but only became legally dead when artificially supported breathing breathing stops completely [ 62 ], p In the early stages of the debate, Islamic jurists deferred to physicians and generally did not present arguments based on Islamic understanding of either the nature of the human being or on criteria used to determine that death had occurred.
What appears to be the case in Islam is similar to Christianity, namely there is only partial understanding of the actual criteria. After an explanation of the criteria used, seven emended their view to indicate the appropriateness of brain death [ 5 ], p. In this situation, when some individuals were better informed on the details of brain death and its differentiation from conditions such as persistent vegetative state, they were more inclined to accept neurological criteria.
Islam Though the issue of how to determine if someone has died remains contentious, there is little disagreement on withdrawing futile treatment. The physician and family are charged with making this decision.
Factors that can be considered include the benefit to be derived from the treatment, the burden to the patient and the burden to the family. Although each form has unique aspects, these traditions share features that cut across regional boundaries. These include an animistic world view, concern for universal harmony, centeredness in nature and place, and right practice. Animistic traditions have several features that have bearing on the discussion at hand. In Animism, humans have both a physical and a spiritual component.
At death, the spirit, often called an ancestor, will both abide in another world and be present in this one.
Karma in Hinduism
Vedanta philosophy asserts that an adhikari eligible person for the pursuit of moksa must undergo personal training through spiritual practices Kumar This training creates within adhikaris four main qualities that help them to attain liberation.
The first, called nityanityavastuviveka, is the power to discriminate between permanent and impermanent. This is especially important since one must identify the transcendent essence of the universe. Ihamutrarthabhogaviraga, the second quality, is detachment from worldly and other-worldly objects. The third quality, samadamadisadhanasampat, is the development of self-control through six properties: Finally, the adhikari must possess mumuksutva, which is a strong desire to be released from samsara.
Even though the end of suffering may not be enough to fuel this desire, as it also entails giving up worldly pleasure, Advaita Vedanta enhances motivation by characterizing enlightenment as perpetual bliss Chakrabarti 5. Three main paths yogas to attaining moksa are emphasized in the Bhagavad Gita, which is part of the famous epic the Mahabharata Shivkumar The first of these is jnana transcendental knowledgewhich is gained through contemplation and meditation on the true nature of the self Raghavachar One may also develop knowledge by learning from a guru spiritual teacher or an individual who has already achieved enlightenment Shivkumar Study of the Vedas with close attention to Vedanta can also lead to the accumulation of knowledge required to bring about the realization of moksa.
Although the Bhagavad Gita maintains that anyone, regardless of class varnacan achieve moksa, it may be easier for individuals in certain varnas to pursue a specific path to liberation. Since intense study of spiritual matters is an asset in following jnana, the Brahmin priestly class who spend a great deal of time learning and reading Vedic texts may be exposed to an environment that is more facilitative to the attainment of moksa through jnana than individuals in other varnas.
The second main path to moksa is that of karma action Shivkumar The Bhagavad Gita teaches that action should be disciplined.
Atman & Brahman
In detaching themselves from this world, adhikaris should renounce all attachment from the fruits of their actions. For example, they should not perform deeds simply because these deeds will bring them success. However, this does not mean that a person seeking moksa should renounce all action and practice inaction. Rather, God or Visnu in the form of Krsna declares that the world would be destroyed if he did not perform actions. He concludes that people should dedicate all their actions to God.
This is very similar to the debate over the importance of good works versus faith in Protestant Christianity as a means for entering heaven. Bhakti loving devotion is the third core path to moksa. Each living thing - people, animals, plants - have an atman that forms each thing's eternal essence. The atman is not the body; the body is not eternal.
c. The Four Stages of Life | Mahavidya
The body houses the atman until the body dies. Atman is immortal and eternal. Brahman is "world soul" or "cosmic soul. It is the life source of all that has been, is and will be throughout the entire cosmos. It is not an individual being - it is more like the primal ground or reality of all being and existence. So, the phrase "atman is Brahman" is saying, quite simply, that the individual soul is the world soul.
In other words, each individual soul - say, yours or mine - comes from and is made of the same reality as the world soul. There is no distinction between us, on the one hand, and the ultimate divine reality, on the other.