Curriculum and Instruction (C&I) is a field within education which seeks to research, develop, and implement curriculum changes that increase student. Abstract. The definition of instruction and curriculum may take on different meanings based on the purpose or interpretation whether political. Ron National and State Standards in Curriculum Design and the Art of Curriculum and instruction are Models of Curriculum Instruction Relationship.
Define curriculum and instruction. What is the relationship between these terms?
Relationship Between Curriculum and Instruction
Discuss the contributions of John Dewey to the development of curriculum thought or practice. Outline the major beliefs of the following schools of philosophy: The quick answer is that curriculum addresses what the students will be taught while instruction addresses how the students will be taught.
Curriculum is derived from the Latin word currere meaning "to run or progress forward". Curriculum includes the activities, goals, subject matter, technology, and student interests that will be included in the learning environment. The goals and objects, scope and sequence, and guidelines are all part of the curriculum. There is significant debate in the educational system regarding what the curriculum should be.
Is academic knowledge facts and theory more important than technical knowledge practical and applied? In a specific sense, is English and History more important than shop class and home economics? Throughout history, the educational system has also been used as a socializing agent whereby students are indoctrinated into a belief and value system.
In these cases, school is used as a social change agent. The curriculum is designed in order to mold students thinking in areas such as ethnicity, religion, a shared national myth and many different agendas including: Doll, in his book, Curriculum Improvement: Decision Making and Process, goes further, stating that: The curriculum of a school is the formal and informal content and process by which learners gain knowledge and understanding, develop skills, and alter attitudes, appreciations, and values under he auspices of that school Dollp It is this last definition that is perhaps the most useful to educators who wish to affect and improve student learning.
Partially this is because it lacks the vagueness that many definitions have, and partially it is because curriculum, as Doll has defined it, can have outcomes that may be measured, allowing for the curriculum to be acted upon and improved. It is what teachers often concisely refer to as "planning" and "teaching. With curriculum being the content of what is taught along with an overall process of how that content is to be taught, and instruction being the more detailed plans and the way those plans are implemented in order to teach the curriculum content, it becomes easy to understand that the two must be compatible in order to maximize student learning.
The case of multiage classrooms illustrates this close tie that exists between curriculum and instruction. Currently the most common classroom structure in American elementary schools is the single-grade classroom. This structure is meant to make instruction more efficient, allowing students of the same age to move through curriculum content at the same pace.
In these classrooms the most prevalent teaching method is whole-class direct instruction.
Because of the dominance of this structure nation-wide, commercially available curriculum and state learning standards are designed to be implemented in this type of learning environment. Some educators in their efforts to improve education have switched from a single-grade classroom structure to a multiage one. The multiage structure purposefully places students of different ages together in the same classroom while supporting an individualized continuous progress instructional model.
While changing the structure of the classroom, multiage educators also change the instructional methods they use in order to better match the needs of their diverse group of students. They have found that " c urriculum designed for use in single-grade classrooms is not always adaptable to environments in which whole-class direct instruction is not the norm.
Allowing for flexible groupings, academic diversity, and individual pacing are needs that are central to multiage practices" YatesCurriculum in Multiage Learning Environments, The instructional methods used by these teachers necessitate that curriculum be organized in a compatible manner. The institutional bases for curriculum planning include planning domains, the context or characteristics of the school situation, the impact of current trends and issues, and the use of strategic planning.
Those bases of curriculum planning that affect people directly include student and teacher needs, local curriculum problems to be addressed, competencies of the planners, and pressures from inside and outside the school Dollp All of these bases affect the curriculum planning process in various ways and to differing degrees. They can also vary with each situation over time. As of this writing, a current educational issue in the United States is that of student performance and preparation for the workplace.
Curriculum & Instruction
The trend is for state governments to create standards of competence that are tested at various points in students' educational careers and to make schools and students accountable for their performance on these tests. Test scores are frequently reported in the local media and this may lead to pressure from the local population being brought to bear on the school to improve its curricula.
The context of the school may be that it is within a district that hasn't passed a school levy for a number of years and thus has not been able to budget money to work on improving the curricula during that time.