PDF | Foreign direct investment is an important indicator to boost the economic growth of Malaysia. Foreign direct investment was identified as. To what extent does higher investment help to increase the rate of economic growth? - How higher investment affects both demand and supply. Thus the purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI), domestic investments and economic growth in Malaysia.
If there is spare capacity, then increased investment and a rise in AD will increase the rate of economic growth. However, if the economy is close to full capacity, then rising AD will only cause inflation and not an increase in real GDP However, there are other factors that affect AD apart from investment.
For example, if there was a fall in consumer spending or a fall in exports, then a rise in investment may not actually increase AD. Investment and the multiplier effect If the economy has spare capacity, a rise in investment can also cause a multiplier effect.
The initial rise in investment increases economic growth, but if firms gain more sales and profit, they are willing to reinvest this in further investment.
How Does Investment Affect Productivity & Economic Growth?
Also, households who gain employment from the investment, have more income to spend. For example, investing in skills and education can increase labour productivity. Investment in new technology and capital can increase productivity and the productive capacity of the economy; this helps to shift long-run aggregate supply LRAS to the right. If investment leads to a significant increase in productivity then — it can lead to an increase in the long run trend rate of economic growth.
Evaluation It depends on the type of investment. For example, misplaced government investment in improving industrial capacity could be inefficient and fail to increase productivity in the economy. Private sector investment or investment from overseas may be much more effective in actually increasing productivity as private firms have more knowledge about most effective types of investment.
However, some countries may have supply-constraints in public goods — roads, bridges, infrastructure.
These public goods will not be provided fully by the free-market; therefore, it may require government investment to overcome the supply bottlenecks. Finally OWN is positive but not significantly related to firm value. Particularly, foreign direct investment was the key driver underlying the strong growth performance experienced by the Malaysian economy until However, after the influence of foreign direct investment in contributing to the economic growth of Malaysia begin to decline.
According to Mahani Zainal Abidinthe decline of foreign direct investment inflow to Malaysia was mainly due to shortage of human capital, corruption and low level of technological capacity. However, this scenario became bad to worse during the ninth Malaysian plan whereby the ninth Malaysian plan had an outlay of RM billion 9th Malaysia Plan, Therefore, up to date Federal Government had accumulated a total debt of RM The deficit was caused by large subsides and bloated inefficiency in public services Martin Jalleh, A high cost was also acquired by the government because of non-competitive, bidding practices employed by the government due to corruption and tax fraud contributed to unmeasured revenue loss 9th Malaysia Plan, Thus, according to Idris Jalaif the level of debt persists, the Malaysian economy will have to take another 15 years to settle all its debt or even face a similar situation like Greece that could lead to bankruptcy Quah Boon Huat, Over the years, the focus of foreign capital changed in Malaysia.
The largest component of foreign direct investment was equity capital, followed by reinvested earnings and other capital. The value for equity capital increased from RM The increased of Meanwhile, the second largest component, reinvested earning accumulated to RM However, other capital experienced a downward trend as much as In fact, this problem turn from bad to worse in the yearwhere a drop of Small economies like Malaysia therefore need to enhance their competitive advantage through innovation, technological advancement and value addition.
This can convert low value assembly line to one that is driven by innovation and built on attracting talent. A New Economic Model was formed to overcome the weaknesses and enhance the strength of the economy to increase the attractiveness of Malaysia based on the location advantage theory. Therefore, attention needs to be given to the location advantage channels as a crucial determinant of foreign direct investment that eventually contribute to economic growth in Malaysia.
Furthermore, attention on the determination of the critical value for location advantage channels will be essential to encourage inflow of foreign direct investment and economic growth.
Thus, these issues provides the purpose if this study. This study aims to identify which location advantage channels and its threshold value that can influence the inflow of foreign direct investment into Malaysia. Inflows of foreign direct investment into developing countries grew by an average of 23 percent a year during IMF, In addition, foreign direct investment was now the largest and the most stable source of private capital for developing countries and also economies in transition, which accounting for nearly 50 percent of all capital flows Kraay, However, less developed countries have greater expectation on foreign direct investment.
Foreign direct investment was considered as a medium for acquiring skills, technology, organizational and managerial expertise. Unfortunately, the recent bulk of the inflow has been directed to only a limited number of countries.
Developing countries only received 40 percent of foreign direct investment in to compared to 25 percent in to Meanwhile, China has been the largest developing country that received the most of the foreign direct investment since From the year to35 percent of foreign direct investment that flowed to developing countries went to China World Bank Report, Mohd Ridauddin Masud et al.
The openness of the economy with the rest of the world has significant liberalization in terms of trade. The open economic encouraged more confident investment.Economic Growth explained (explainity® explainer video)
Other than trade liberalization, financial liberalization was also important to sustain capital inflows. Since early s, many economic activities of firm, industries and countries were concentrated geographically. Most people in developed countries or in developing countries live in large and compactly populated urban areas.
Investment and economic growth
Generally, many industries were geographically concentrated and such clusters are clearly an important source of international specialization and trade. Location advantage was the additional advantage that a firm, industry or country have in a particular geographical area.
Firm, industry or country benefited from a location advantage mainly because they are able to access into resources compare to others. Thus, the determinants of location advantage can be explained in the terms of difference in technologies, endowments and policy management Ottaviano and Puga, Besides that, innovation and competitiveness was also identified as an indicator that can push output to internationalize Vernon, Meanwhile, Florida claimed that new economic geography has two implications on how economic theory as a whole was conducted.
Firstly, it involves increasing returns. Increasing returns in one form or another are central to modern theory in industrial organization, international trade and economic growth.
Investment and economic growth | Economics Help
Whereas, the second implication was related to geography turns out that perhaps the most naturally nonlinear area of economics. Thus, the new economic geography on specific issue of location may help to make economic activities friendlier.
- The Relationship between Investment and Economic Growth in Malaysia
Generally, location is home to market based forces, which created the demand for talent. This reflects a set of location based characteristics such as a bundle of facilities, which attracted human capital.
Black and Henderson claimed that workers are more productive when they located around others with high levels of human capital. Besides that, Romer also claims the importance of knowledge and human capital in generating economic growth through economic geography. Romer stressed that what was important for growth was integration not into an economy with a large number of people but rather into one with a large amount of human capital. Foreign direct investment increased the demand for skilled labor that leads to an increase in the share of total wages of skilled labor meanwhile multinational firms are more often interested towards skilled labor intensive than the rest of the economy.
This initially supports the study by Feenstra and Hanson that there was a causality effect between human capital development and foreign direct investment by using an outsourcing as an explanatory variable during the period of to in manufacturing industries of the United States. Human capital generally played an important role in the process of economic growth.
The Relationship between Investment and Economic Growth in Malaysia
Human capital development generated knowledge spillovers, which leads to higher productivity growth in host country. Moreover, differences of human capital across regions may be associated with threshold effects and therefore a persistent growth differential across regions takes place. Knowledge in the form of education, training, public good, research and development with other investments generate spillover that convert decreasing return into increasing return.
Thus, technical progress and growth can be based on creating a new knowledge by adopting and transferring existing technology, hence developing countries has the potential to grow faster than developed countries. However, the potential of converting the technology depend on the availability of capital.
In most of the developing countries like Malaysia, capital was obtained through foreign direct investment.
Kathuria recognized the spillover of technical skills.