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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES. In , the world's population aged 5 to 24 reached 2,,, people, accounting for % of the world's population. Educational exchange is a cornerstone of the U.S. bilateral relationship with Vietnam as a top prospect for U.S. educational institutions. I.2 Current Structure of the Vietnamese Higher Education System. these key elements and where Vietnam's main constraints lie in relation to them. Key.
Craig Chittick, speaks about the growth of cooperation between Vietnam and Australia in the field of education. What do you think about the quality of these students? There are currently 22, Vietnamese students studying in Australia. These students have a very good academic record and have received positive feedback from academics. This year, the Australian Government intends to offer 60 Masters scholarships in Vietnam.
Many other fields, such as healthcare, public administration, and law are also popular among many Vietnamese students. What are the opportunities and challenges for investment relations in the years to come? Investment by Australian organizations and businesses in the field of education in Vietnam is still developing very strongly. They not only invest in higher education but also in vocational training. For example, Da Nang has a leading Australian college in the field of tourism training.
Fact Sheet: United States-Vietnam Education Cooperation
We are very pleased that the Vietnamese Government is encouraging the participation of foreign investors in the field of education and I am confident that, with favorable conditions, the relationship between the two countries will continue to be bright and that there will be many opportunities for education cooperation in the future.
The partnership will be enhanced by new air routes. The respect that students show to the teachers is also evident in linguistic behavior. The terms of address that students use in speaking to their teachers are the same as those they use in speaking to their parents. However, educational attainment was less impressive.
Education in Vietnam » Vietnam’s History
Although five years of primary school education was considered compulsory and 92 percent of eligible children were enrolled in primary school inonly two-thirds completed the fifth grade. The cost of tuition, books, and uniforms and the need to supplement family income are the two main reasons for dropping out.
- Vietnam’s History
- EDUCATION IN VIETNAM
A huge disparity exists in primary school enrollment between the cities and rural parts of Vietnam. In some rural areas, only 10 to 15 percent of the children progress beyond third grade, whereas almost 96 percent of pupils in Ho Chi Minh City complete fifth grade.
In enrollment in secondary school was only Literacy age 15 and over can read and write: School life expectancy primary to tertiary education: However, Chinese historical documents recorded many excellent Vietnamese scholars who graduated in China with a doctoral degree and worked for Chinese Royalty, such as Ly Cam, Ly Tien and Truong Trong.
But the first two dynasties Ngo and Dinh were not on throne so long, and were more concerned with national than education. Ly Cong Uan, the founder king of the Ly dynasty was educated in a pagoda. During the Ly dynasty, the fundamental educational system was officially improved.
King Ly Thanh Ton was credited with building the Temple of Literatures at the ancient Capital of Thang Long to encourage people to appreciate education.
In the first exam was held under the order of King Ly Nhan Ton to select scholars for the mandarin bureaucracy. The students only studied literature and the ancient history of China and Viet Nam for the entirety of their schooling. Later on, the Public Administration curriculum was added to the program. When the Ho Royal family ruled the country, students were taught simple mathematics. During the earliest stage —traditional education profoundly bore the imprint of Chinese civilisation.
As a result of a millennium under Chinese domination B. Consequently, traditional education focused on the teaching of Confucian thoughts and the principles of self-cultivation of virtues, unity of man and heaven, relevance of social order and political harmony.
By contrast, the education system during the period — was based upon the French colonial assimilation policy. It is worth mentioning that, during the French influence, Quoc Ngu national languagepresent-day Vietnamese, a Romanised script of the spoken Vietnamese language, was created by Western Catholic missionaries who subsequently spread Catholic influences in Vietnamese cultures.
During the subsequent period —, education under the Democratic Republic of Vietnam DRV operated amid the gunfire of nationalist struggles against Japan and then France for independence.
Education in Vietnam Under French Rule French efforts at education in the early decades of colonial rule were negligible. A few government quoc ngu schools were established along with an Ecole Normale to train Vietnamese clerks and interpreters. A few Vietnamese from wealthy families, their numbers rising to about ninety bywere sent to France to study. Three lycees secondary schoolslocated in Hanoi, Hue, and Saigon, were opened in the early s, using French as the language of instruction.
The number of quoc ngu elementary schools was gradually increased, but even by it was estimated that no more than one school-age child in ten was receiving schooling. As a result, Vietnam's high degree of literacy declined precipitously during the colonial period. Three levels of general education, infant, primary, and secondary, were established. The old examination system was abolished inand schools for training administrative officers in the French style were officially launched in The University of Hanoi, founded in to provide an alternative for Vietnamese students beginning to flock to Japan, was closed for a decade the following year because of fear of student involvement in a uprising in Hanoi.
The triennial examinations were abolished in in Tonkin and in in Annam. China, which had always served as a source of teaching materials and texts, by the turn of century was beginning to be a source of reformist literature and revolutionary ideas. Materials filtering in from China included both Chinese texts and translations of Western classics, which were copied and spread from province to province.
Students had and still do have the opportunity to learn literature, history, philosophy, law, science, math, medicine and as well as other languages.
The first university that applied the western educational system was built in Northern Viet Nam, Hanoi, in medicine school and law school. Towardthe estimated population in Southern Viet Nam was 25 million people, but there were 3 state universities built in cities of Hue, Saigon, Can Tho.
In parallel with the state universities, four private universities were also built: One in Dalat was named after the city. They all offered various choices in curriculum similar to most modern universities around the world.
In addition, each year thousands of Vietnamese students studied abroad in countries such as the United States, France, Germany and Australia. Subsequently, however, rival regimes in Hanoi and Saigon broadened educational opportunities. Both governments accomplished this despite the shortage of teachers, textbooks, equipment, and classrooms and despite the disruptions of war in the s and early s.
The school system was originally patterned after the French model, but the curriculum was revised to give more emphasis to Vietnamese history, language, and literature and, in Hanoi, to the teaching of revolutionary ethics and Marxism-Leninism. Library of Congress] Elite Girls School in Vietnam in the s The period —, during which Vietnam was split into two opposing states, witnessed two completely different systems of education: Education in Vietnam After the Vietnam War In the years afterall public and private schools in the South were taken over by the state as a first step toward integration into a unified socialist school system.
Thousands of teachers were sent from the North to direct and supervise the process of transition, and former teachers under the Saigon regime were allowed to continue their work only after they had completed "special courses" designed to expose "the ideological and cultural poisoning of which they had been victims for twenty years. Library of Congress] The educational system was based on reforms announced in January that were designed to make education more relevant to the nation's economic and social needs.
These reforms combined theory with practical application and emphasized the training of skilled workers, technicians, and managers. The reforms also stressed the need to develop the country's scientific and technological levels of achievement until they were comparable to international levels in order to assist Vietnam in expanding its technical cooperation with foreign countries in general and socialist countries in particular.
By the northern and southern schools had been integrated into one system, new textbooks had been distributed throughout the country, and the curriculum had been made uniform for the first time. The government also tried to make the first nine years of general education compulsory, despite the continuing shortage of teachers, school buildings, and equipment, particularly modern equipment for teaching applied sciences.
The low morale of underpaid teachers with low job status complicated these attempts. In order to address the problem, the reforms called on agricultural cooperatives and even "private citizens" to make contributions to local schools and to participate in "a movement for self-supply of teaching aids.
Composed of representatives of the school, parents, local administration, and various mass organizations, these councils were designed to promote more productive relations between the school and the local community. Nhan Dan reported in that Vietnamese and Soviet linguists had compiled textbooks for Vietnamese secondary general education schools and that they had also begun a similar project in Russian for use in Vietnamese colleges.
The Soviets also assisted the Vietnamese in publishing scientific and technical dictionaries. In a Soviet source reported that, under the Soviet program of educational assistance that had begun inabout 60, Vietnamese specialists and skilled workers had been trained in addition to 18, vocational students at the college and secondary school levels.
As of mid, Vietnam had "cooperative ties" with 15 Soviet universities. Illiteracy was declining, and about 2. The Vietnamese report that in there were 3 million children enrolled in child-care centers and kindergartens, close to 12 million students in general education schools, and more thanstudents in vocational and professional schools and colleges. Scientific and technical cadres numbered more than 1 million. Nhan Dan reported in September that schools were shifting from literary education to literary, ethical, and vocational education, in accordance with the goals established by the reforms.
The quality of education, however, remained low. Material and technical support for education were far from adequate, student absenteeism and the dropout rate were high, teachers continued to face difficult personal economic circumstances, and students and teachers in general failed to embrace the socialist ideals and practices the regime encouraged. The majority of general education students, he added, were preoccupied with college entrance; and vocational schools, professional schools, and colleges had yet to restructure their curricula and training programs or to formulate plans for scientific research and experimentation.
In Hoang's assessment, such shortcomings were symptomatic of a very low level of financial and human resource investment in education that was derived from the party and the government's failure to recognize the importance of "the human factor" and the fundamental role of education in socioeconomic development. Finally, in the contemporary period sincethe national education system has undergone tremendous reforms since doi moi has been launched and has allowed a market- oriented economy to emerge in the country.
Doanabout the same time as the Soviet Union began perestroika.
The literacy rate was 88 percent in going down. This was a sharp decline from Although access to higher levels of education has been limited, the introduction of near-universal primary education has produced a high literacy rate. According to the World Bank figures, 83 percent of the population over 15 years old was literate. Encyclopedia of Sexuality, 2. The national education system nowadays comprises five levels: In addition, vocational education and training provides educational opportunities for those secondary school leavers who are unable to enter higher education [Source: First, public or state-run cong lap institutions are funded by the government.
The majority of staff working in public schools are government officers or permanent staff members. Second, semi-public ban cong institutions are provided with rudimentary premises by the State. Third, people-founded dan lap schools are created and managed by a social organization and excluded from State- funding schemes. Lastly, private tu thuc schools or universities are financed and administered completely by individuals or groups of individuals.
These forms of institutions are found in all levels of the educational system. Regarding the policy-making system, the central government, through the Ministry of Education and Training MOET and its departments, formulates and adopts education policies.
In effect, education reforms are based on the overall. In particular, the National Assembly also promulgates the laws on education and makes decisions concerning budgetary and strategic plans for educational development. Under this centralised management structure, each level of the education system is subject to a different degree of central control over the curriculum. The primary school and secondary school curricula are national and compulsory and, therefore, centrally controlled.
The number of hours, curriculum content and textbooks are dictated by the MOET. Central control over the curriculum consequently enforces common practices and standards across the whole system, and is associated with the adoption of a national system of qualifications.
In higher education, the under- graduate and postgraduate curricula also follow the uniform frameworks set by the MOET, which determine the total number of credits and the percentage of core courses, required courses and specialised courses for each field of study. Control is centralised particularly in respect of required courses, such as Marxist-Leninist political sciences, in terms of the number of hours and the teaching content.
In the following sections, the centralised control of the MOET over the curriculum will be analysed in detail in relation to moral education. Consequently, moral education in present-day Vietnam takes various forms and definitions.