[Indian] Relationships With The Europeans
that the relations between the English settlers and Native Americans were far more together with their constant hunger for land, inevitably led to conflicts and to the rapid groups of indigenous people long before the European arrival. Another cause for poor relations between Native Americans and European Settlers was the constant push for acquiring new land by the. European settlers often had disputes with Native Americans over land. The Native Americans, with their swords, knives, and bows and arrows, were no match for.
This attitude was not far removed from that of the philosopher John Locke, who so strongly influenced the thinking of the fathers of the American Revolution.
American History: A New World Clash of Cultures
He wrote that one could own the land only with which one mixed one's labor and could actually use. But the colonists were amassing great estates on which they might eventually establish business enterprises, and they strongly objected to the presence of the natives on land that they now owned.
Similar quarrels began to occur throughout the colonies, leading to armed hostilities. There were many conflicts between settlers and natives throughout the colonial period. One of the first major conflicts occurred in The New England colonies raised a militia and waged war against the Pequot for a solid year.
On June 5,a militia destroyed a large Pequot village at Stonington, Connecticut, and a little over a month later a military force made up of soldiers from three New England colonies tracked down the survivors of the Stonington village at a place near New Haven and slaughtered all they could find.
Other Pequot men and boys who were eventually captured were sold into slavery in the West Indies. The women and girls became slaves to white settlers in New England. With their numbers decimated, their main villages burned, their stored food and supplies stolen, the few Survivors in this tribe left for the west. This was the end of the entire tribe's presence in New England. Although for forty years after this incident, there was no open warfare between settlers and natives, relations between them were hardly cordial.
Individuals from both camps were guilty of murders and thefts, and the English continued to gobble up land. Land disputes continued, the one at Dedham in and being one of the most prominent. There were also quarrels with the Narraganset in Rhode Island where Massachusetts Bay businessmen, under the Atherton Company, began commandeering immense amounts of Indian land. In this case, the European settlers of Rhode Island sided with the natives against the settlers of Massachusetts Bay and Connecticut.
After the embittered Narragansett caused property damage near some Connecticut plantations, the New England Confederation demanded that the natives either pay a fine, which was too large for them to meet, or forfeit all their lands to the business corporation. Immediate disaster was averted when the king of England, Charles II, intervened at Rhode Island's request to side with the Narraganset and voided the claims of the Atherton Company.
Still, the company tried to ignore the king's dictate and continued appropriating Narraganset land. Throughout the s and s, the General Courts of the Massachusetts Bay or Plymouth Colony made a habit of hauling tribal sachems before them to quiz them on rumors of conspiracies or allegiances with tribes or nationals that the bay considered unfriendly. Once these hearings were over, the court would present the defendant with a bill for court costs, as it did the Wampanoag chief, King Philip, in The reason for the disintegration of relations and the buildup of hostilities was simple: King Philip had historically been friendly with the settlers, but suspicions mounted, rumors raged on, and the English demanded that various tribes surrender their weapons.
For four years, King Philip and other sachems inwardly seethed over the humiliation. Finally, in Juneafter Plymouth Colony's execution of three of King Philip's men for the murder of an informant, the Indian chief began his raids on settlements in a year-long war in which many native tribes sided with the settlers.
Some fifty towns along the frontier were burned.
Captain Newport led the expedition, staying until June 22nd, when he sailed back to England for supplies. The source material in this Snapshot comes from the time between May and June, when Newport was in America. These settlers were unprepared, and did not even plant the right crops or eat the right foods.
They soon encountered starvation and famine, despite stealing food from the Native Americans. Thousands of Native Americans were also killed, either in fighting or by outbreaks of European diseases to which their bodies had no immunity. Those settlers that survived, together with new arrivals, began to cultivate the land, growing tobacco.
As more settlers arrived, more Native American hunting grounds were taken, and the Native Americans began to fight back.
Any chance of peaceful relations were at an end. Today we call those people American Indians. Archaeologists tell us that American Indians may have been on the North American continent for fifty thousand years.
They were the first Americansand they were great explorers, too. They didn't come to this continent all at once. It is thought that these ancient adventurers arrived at different times, over several thousands of years.
They journeyed from Asia on foot or by boat. Their explorations took them through icy landscapes and along the coastlines. Eventually these earliest American explorers spread out over the entire continent. Over time, their lives changed as they adapted to different environments. American Indians were creative. They found ways to live in deserts, in forests, along the oceans, and on the grassy prairies. Native peoples were great hunters and productive farmers. They built towns and traded over large distances with other tribes.
These were the people the European explorers met when their ships landed in America.
Native Americans and Europeans Facts for Kids -
Europeans carried a hidden enemy to the Indians: Native peoples of America had no immunity to the diseases that European explorers and colonists brought with them.
Diseases such as smallpoxinfluenzameaslesand even chicken pox proved deadly to American Indians. Europeans were used to these diseases, but Indian people had no resistance to them. Sometimes the illnesses spread through direct contact with colonists.
Other times, they were transmitted as Indians traded with one another.
American Indians at European Contact
The result of this contact with European germs was horrible. Sometimes whole villages perished in a short time.
As early asEnglish explorer Thomas Harriot observed how European visits to the small villages of coastal North Carolina Indians killed the Natives. The disease was also so strange that they neither knew what it was nor how to cure it. The introduction of European diseases to American Indians was an accident that no one expected.