Marco Polo was an Italian merchant, explorer, and writer, born in the Republic of Venice. . His relation with a certain Marco Polo, who in was mentioned with riots against the aristocratic government, and escaped the There, an envoy from the Levant invited them to meet Kublai Khan, who had never met Europeans. Read and learn for free about the following article: Marco Polo. At the height of the Mongol Empire, Marco Polo served Emperor Kublai Khan in China and returned to Venice to write an . Practice: Quiz: Exploration & Interconnection. Kublai Khan After a three-and-a-half year journey, Marco Polo, his father and uncle arrived in Marco Polo met Kublai Khan soon after arriving in Shangdu. .. Here is this pretty daughter of yours; give her in marriage to the Bailo Achmath (for.
Kublai Khan & Marco Polo | ommag.info
At the other end of Asia a campaign with similar success took place against China. The leader was Kublai, whose generals outflanked the Chinese defenses by moving toward Annam via the southwest of China which was occupied by the independent Tai kingdom of Nan-chao. Before Genghis Khan consolidated them under his centralized control inthey were no more than a group of largely autonomous tribes, more or less unknown to recorded history.
Except for some organized hunting and the management of their herds, they had little experience of economic activity. They had almost no experience in statecraft prior to the establishment of the Yuan, and concepts such as the taxation of urban societies were brought to their attention by their foreign advisers, upon whom they relied heavily. Hence, except in areas like China where there was a firm native political tradition, they never succeeded in organizing a durable state.
MARCO POLO AND KUBLAI KHAN
In China, too, everything depended ultimately on the willpower and ability of the ruler. The Mongols had come to power in China, as elsewhere, by sheer force of arms. With that prestige to back him, relying on his dominant personality, and building on the foundations of the brilliant civilization developed in China by the preceding Song dynasty —Kublai could maintain the illusion for a while that Mongol supremacy was firmly based.
Yet Kublai Khan at the outset of his reign was faced by an insoluble dilemma, which was given vivid expression in a memorial presented to him by one of his Chinese advisers: To the extent that they did so, however, they would be bound to become increasingly assimilated and perhaps lose their identity altogether.
If, on the other hand, they worked through Chinese and other agents, they would become alienated from the mass of the population, which would reject them. In either case the Mongols—culturally less advanced than the Chinese, numerically overwhelmed by them, and used to a different pattern of life—could not continue to rule China for long as a distinct and privileged caste.
He began to play an important part in the extension and consolidation of the Mongol empire only inwhen he was in his mids.
At that time Kublai was invested with full civil and military responsibility for the affairs of China. He appears never to have learned to read or write Chinesebut already he had recognized the superiority of Chinese thought and had gathered around himself a group of trustworthy Confucian advisers.
- Kublai Khan
- Kublai Khan & Marco Polo
Courtesy of Asia Society Galleries, New York His attitude toward government was formed under the influence of those learned Chinese, who convinced him of the necessary interdependence of ruler and ruled and reinforced his innate tendency toward humanity and magnanimity. At home, in the fief allotted to him in the Wei River valley in modern Gansu and Shaanxi provinceshe established a competent administration and a supply base.
In the field he stressed to his generals the precepts of his mentors—the importance and effectiveness of clemency toward the conquered.
Kublai Khan | Biography, Accomplishments, & Facts | ommag.info
Kublai took on the Nan Song in the flank, subjugating the Dai kingdom of Nanzhao in present-day Yunnan province before handing over command to his general, Uriyangqadai.
Ten days later he announced his succession in a proclamation drawn up in Classical Chinese. A legend recorded in Mongol chronicles to the effect that the dying Genghis designated the child Kublai as a future khan seems to have been contrived so as to provide retrospective justification of an act of usurpation. Against him were ranged those who resented the abandonment of the old ways of the steppe and the adoption of an alien, China-centred culture.
Kaidu never relaxed his hostility toward Kublai and remained master of Mongolia proper and Turkistan until his death in The war with Kaidu showed how decisively Kublai had identified himself with the Chinese world and turned against the world of the nomads. Genghis had been strong and ruthless enough to compel the Mongols, always inclined to family feuds, to serve his cause.
Kublai, powerful though he was, could no longer control the steppe aristocracy effectively. His accomplishment was that much greater because he was a barbarian in Chinese eyes as well as a nomadic conqueror.
Even in Chinese official historiography, however, the Mongol Kublai is treated with respect. The final conquest of the Nan Song took several years. Military operations opened once again in The Song emperor Duzong was apparently badly served by his last ministers, who are said to have kept him misinformed of the true situation, whereas many Song commanders went over voluntarily to the Mongols.
With all of China in Mongol hands, the Mongol conquests in the south and east had reached their effective limit. At various times tribute was demanded of the peripheral kingdoms: The Mongol armies suffered some disastrous defeats in those campaigns. According to Marco Polo's account: He is of a good stature, neither tall nor short, but of a middle height. He has a becoming amount of flesh, and is very shapely in all his limbs.
His complexion is white and red, the eyes black and fine, the nose well formed and well set on. And this Temur is an able and brave man, as he hath already proven on many occasions. In that city stands his great Palace, andnow I will tell you what it is like. There are beasts also of sundry kinds, such as white stags and fallow deer, gazelles and roebucks, and fine squirrels of various sorts, with numbers also of the animal that gives the musk, and all manner of other beautiful creatures, insomuch that the whole place is full of them, and no spot remains void except where there is traffic of people going and coming.
Hence it is made just in the same fashion and of the same size, so that everything can be carried on in the same manner after his own death. Now I am going to tell you of the chief city of Cathay, in which these Palaces stand; and why it was built, and how. Kublai Khan set up a capital with a pleasure palace there before he established Daidu. Xanadu was destroyed in and would likely have been forgotten were in not for Marco Polo's accounts of the palace and Samuel Tayler Coleridge's poem Kublai Khan.
Round this palace is a wall The gyrfalcons alone amount to more than It is gilt all over, most elaborately finished inside and decorated with beasts and birds of very skillful workmanship. It is reared on gilt and varnished pillars, on each of which stands a dragon entwining the pillar with tail and supporting the roof on outstretched limbs. The roof is also made of canes, so varnished that it is quite waterproof. This is the greatest palace that ever was. The roof is very lofty, and the walls of the palace are all covered with gold and silver.
The hall is so large that it could easily dine 6, people. The roof is vermilion, yellow, green and blue, the tiles fixed with a varnish so fine that they shine like crystal and can be seen from a great distance. Often, too, he enters the park with a leopard on the crupper of his horse; when he feels inclined, he lets it go and thus catches a hare or stag or roebuck to give to the gyrfalcons that he keeps in the mew.
And this he does for recreation and sport. When the 28th day of August arrives, he takes his departure, and the Cane Palace is taken to pieces It is held in place by more than chains of silk. Coleridge later wrote, "During three hours of profound sleep, he composes lines of poetry. After he woke up he wrote down the 54 lines of Kubla Khan when he was interrupted by a visitor.
When he returned to his desk he could no longer remember his dream poem. And all should cry Beware! His flashing eyes, his floating hair! Weave a circle round him thrice, And close your eyes with holy dread, For he on honey-dew hath fed, And drunk the milk of Paradise Marco Polo as Kublai Khan's Envoy Kublai Khan welcomed the Polos like long lost friends.
He used Marco Polo as an emissary and ambassador in China and in other Asian kingdoms. This was not that unusual. Kublai Khan employed thousands of foreigners, mostly Persians and Arabs. Scholars deduce that Marco Polo could speak Persian and Mongol but not much Chinese he often used Persian names rather than Chinese ones for the places he described and spent much of his time with foreigners.
Marco Polo didn't mention what his father and uncle did. It seems probable that they worked as merchants. He served at the Khan's court and was sent on a number of special missions in China, Burma and India. Many places which Marco saw were not seen again by Europeans until last century. Kublai Khan appointed Marco Polo as an official of the Privy Council in and for 3 years he was a tax inspector in Yanzhou, a city on the Grand Canal, northeast of Nanking.
He also visited Karakorum and part of Siberia. Meanwhile his father and uncle took part in the assault on the town of Siang Yang Fou, for which they designed and constructed siege engines.
He frequently visited Hangzhou, another city very near Yangzhou. At one time Hangzhou was the capital of the Song dynasty and had a beautiful lakes and many canals, like Marco's hometown, Venice. Marco fell in love with it.