Make a collage of pictures the learning process and its relationship

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make a collage of pictures the learning process and its relationship

Collage is a technique of an art production, primarily used in the visual arts, where the artwork (February ) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) . In a sense, wood collage made its debut indirectly at the same time as paper It is the process of placing a picture into an object for decoration. Students can also create their own media. For example, student video projects can be a powerful learning experience. Why Teach with Media to Enhance. Adobe Spark's free online photo collage maker helps you easily create your own Adobe Spark's simple design interface makes it the perfect free collage favorite memories to life with just a computer and an internet connection. The design process couldn't be easier, so all you need to do is arrange your Learn more.

Young children have also demonstrated powerful forms of early algebraic generalization Lehrer and Chazan, Forms of generalization in science, such as experimentation, can be introduced before the secondary school years through a developmental approach to important mathematical and scientific ideas Schauble et al.

Strategies for Building a Productive and Positive Learning Environment

Attempts to create environments that are knowledge centered also raise important questions about how to foster an integrated understanding of a discipline. Many models of curriculum design seem to produce knowledge and skills that are disconnected rather than organized into coherent wholes. The National Research Council Vast numbers of learning objectives, each associated with pedagogical strategies, serve as mile posts along the trail mapped by texts from kindergarten to twelfth grade….

make a collage of pictures the learning process and its relationship

Problems are solved not by observing and responding to the natural landscape through which the mathematics curriculum passes, but by mastering time tested routines, conveniently placed along the path National Research Council, The progressive formalization framework discussed above is consistent with this metaphor.

The curricula include the familiar scope and sequence charts that specify procedural objectives to be mastered by students at each grade: Yet it is the network, the connections among objectives, that is important. This is the kind of knowledge that characterizes expertise see Chapter 2. Stress on isolated parts can train students in a series of routines without educating them to understand an overall picture that will ensure the development of integrated knowledge structures and information about conditions of applicability.

Motivating Students

An alternative to simply progressing through a series of exercises that derive from a scope and sequence chart is to expose students to the major features of a subject domain as they arise naturally in problem situations.

Activities can be structured so that students are able to explore, explain, extend, and evaluate their progress. Ideas are best introduced when students see a need or a reason for their use—this helps them see relevant uses of knowledge to make sense of what they are learning.

Problem situations used to engage students may include the historic reasons for the development of the domain, the relationship of that domain to other domains, or the uses of ideas in that domain see Webb and Romberg, In Chapter 7 we present examples from history, science, and mathematics instruction that emphasize the importance of introducing ideas and concepts in ways that promote deep understanding.

A challenge for the design of knowledge-centered environments is to strike the appropriate balance between activities designed to promote understanding and those designed to promote the automaticity of skills necessary to function effectively without being overwhelmed by attentional requirements. Students for whom it is effortful to read, write, and calculate can encounter serious difficulties learning. The importance of automaticity has been demonstrated in a number of areas e. The key principles of assessment are that they should provide opportunities Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: It is important to distinguish between two major uses of assessment.

The first, formative assessment, involves the use of assessments usually administered in the context of the classroom as sources of feedback to improve teaching and learning. The second, summative assessment, measures what students have learned at the end of some set of learning activities. Examples of summative assessments include teacher-made tests given at the end of a unit of study and state and national achievement tests that students take at the end of a year.

Issues of summative assessment for purposes of national, state, and district accountability are beyond the scope of this volume; our discussion focuses on classroom-based formative and summative assessments. Formative Assessments and Feedback Studies of adaptive expertise, learning, transfer, and early development show that feedback is extremely important see Chapters 23and 4.

Given the goal of learning with understanding, assessments and feedback must focus on understanding, and not only on memory for procedures or facts although these can be valuable, too. Assessments that emphasize understanding do not necessarily require elaborate or complicated assessment procedures. Even multiple-choice tests can be organized in ways that assess understanding see below.

make a collage of pictures the learning process and its relationship

Opportunities for feedback should occur continuously, but not intrusively, as a part of instruction. The feedback they give to students can be formal or informal. Effective teachers also help students build skills of self-assessment. Students learn to assess their own work, as well as the work of their peers, in order to help everyone learn more effectively see, e.

Such self-assessment is an important part of the metacognitive approach to instruction discussed in Chapters 34and 7. In many classrooms, opportunities for feedback appear to occur relatively infrequently. After receiving grades, students typically move on to a new topic and work for another set of grades.

Feedback is most valuable when students have the opportunity to use it to revise their thinking as they are working on a unit or project. Opportunities to work collaboratively in groups can also increase the quality of the feedback available to students Barron, ; Bereiter and Scardamalia, ; Fuchs et al. New technologies provide opportunities to increase feedback by allowing students, teachers, and content experts to interact both synchronously and asynchronously see Chapter 9.

Many assessments developed by teachers overly emphasize memory for procedures and facts Porter et al. In addition, many standardized tests that are used for accountability still overemphasize memory for isolated facts and procedures, yet teachers are often judged by how well their students do on such tests.

One mathematics teacher consistently produced students who scored high on statewide examinations by helping students memorize a number of mathematical procedures e. Appropriately designed assessments can help teachers realize the need to rethink their teaching practices. Even without technology, however, advances have been made in devising simple assessments that measure understanding rather than memorization. In the area of physics, assessments like those used in Chapter 2 to compare experts and novices have been revised for use in classrooms.

One task presents students with two problems and asks them to state whether both would be solved using a similar approach and state the reason for the decision: How much work was done by friction? The ball travels on a horizontal surface and eventually rolls without slipping. Novices typically state that these two problems are solved similarly because they match on surface features—both involve a ball sliding and rolling on a horizontal surface.

Students who are learning with understanding state that the problems are solved differently: These kinds of assessment items can be used during the course of instruction to monitor the depth of conceptual understanding. Portfolio assessments are another method of formative assessment. They take time to implement and they are often implemented poorly—portfolios often become simply another place to store student work but no discussion of the work takes place— but used properly, they provide students and others with valuable information about their learning progress over time.

Theoretical Frameworks for Assessment A challenge for the learning sciences is to provide a theoretical framework that links assessment practices to learning theory. A 1-kilogram stick that is 2 meters long is placed on a frictionless surface and is free to rotate about a vertical pivot through one end. A gram lump of putty is attached 80 centimeters from the pivot.

Data such as these are important for helping teachers guide students toward the development of fluid, transferable knowledge Leonard et al. In their report, performance is described in terms of the content and process task demands of the subject matter and the nature and extent of cognitive activity likely to be observed in a particular assessment situation.

The kind and quality of cognitive activities in an assessment is a function of the content and process demands of the task involved. For example, consider the content-process framework for science assessment shown in Figure 6.

At one extreme are knowledge-rich tasks, tasks that require in-depth understanding of subject matter for their completion. At the other extreme are tasks that are not dependent on prior knowledge or related experiences; rather, performance is primarily dependent on the information given in the assessment situation.

The task demands for process skills are conceptualized as a continuum from constrained to open x axis. In open situations, explicit directions are minimized; students are expected to generate and carry out appropriate process skills for problem solution.

  • Motivating Students
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In process-constrained situations, directions can be of two types: In this situation, students are asked to generate explanations, an activity that does not require using the process skills. Assessment tasks can involve many possible combinations of content knowledge and process skills; Table 6. Especially important are norms for people learning from one another and continually attempting to improve.

Strategies for Building a Productive and Positive Learning Environment

We use the term community centered to refer to several aspects of community, including the classroom as a commu- Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: Jensen citation and bibliographic information This study examines how students' sense of belonging is related to academic motivation, and which type of teacher behaviors is correlated with developing a sense of belonging in students.

The paper presents some useful background information on the topics of belonging, motivation and academic self-efficacy. In their experiments, the authors found that students' sense of belonging is fostered by an instructor that demonstrates warmth and openness, encourages student participation, is enthusiastic, friendly and helpful, and is organized and prepared for class.

What Teachers Say and Do to Support Students' Autonomy During a Learning Activity Johnmarshall Reeve and Hyungshim Jang citation and bibliographic information This research paper presents the results of an educational experiment to measure the effects of different instructional behaviors. The experiment investigated a controlling style of teaching compared to an autonomy supportive style, and found that the supportive style resulted in increased student interest, enjoyment, engagement and performance.

Autonomy-supportive teacher behavior can be effective in fostering intrinsic motivation in students. The paper provides useful background information on the topics of motivation, intentionality and autonomy, and also gives examples of controlling vs.

The ABCs of Motivation citation and bibliographic information Although this paper is written for faculty of educational psychology, the information is useful for any teacher who is interested in learning about some of the theory behind motivation. The purpose of this paper is to distill the numerous theories and frameworks for motivational principles into a simpler format.

make a collage of pictures the learning process and its relationship

The authors offer that motivation is based on three fundamental needs: An understanding of these concepts can help teachers provide a learning environment that increases motivation in their students. Gender matters citation and bibliographic information Do females and males choose science for different reasons?

make a collage of pictures the learning process and its relationship

In this study college biology students were surveyed to learn when they became interested and what factors determined their origin and maintenance of interest in biology. One finding was that females were more likely to cite a positive influence with a teacher as a factor for becoming interested in science, which has implications for teacher behavior in fostering an interest in science among female students.

make a collage of pictures the learning process and its relationship

Contracting involves a learning agreement between students and teachers, and it offers the opportunity for independent thinking. What works in the nonmajors' science laboratory David L. Adams This paper offers practical advice on building a workable and meaningful introductory science laboratory for non-science majors. These students usually lack experience in and motivation for the laboratory, so a balanced use of "cookbook" and discovery-based approaches is recommended.

Connecting with students who are disinterested and inexperienced William G Brozo citation and bibliographic information This article was written in the context of middle school education, but is still relevant for undergraduate students who are hard to reach.

The author states that when students claim they are not interested in anything, educators must help them discover what actually does interest them. Furthermore, another way to help youth expand their repertoire of interests is by arranging systematic opportunities for them to interact with community members who are engaged citizens and have a wide variety of life experiences.

A Candle Lights the Way to Scientific Discourse Li-hsuan Yang citation and bibliographic information This short article describes a simple and thought-provoking teaching strategy, burning a candle in the classroom and asking students to observe it and try to explain the processes they observe. The result is that students are able to engage in scientific discourse, hold competing hypotheses, looking for supporting evidence, communicating their ideas with supportive arguments, and proposing possible empirical studies to further their understanding.

This technique could be applied to a geoscience classroom via simple demonstrations with physical models, videos or rock samples.