dynamics, in that they exhibit delusions of grandeur and . relationship is expected between vulnerable narcissism and helping refusal under high social .. The relationship between vulnerable narcissism and aggression in Japanese. To examine gender moderations in the relationships between narcissism and friendship quality dimensions, .. the dynamic self-regulatory processing model ( Morf and and maternal closeness for college students in Japan, the United. The family that I'm most interested in these days is that of the extreme narcissist. I' ll follow this post with one about the children of extreme.
The extreme narcissist needs to be admired and adored. They can't tolerate being questioned or challenged. Their spouse, therefore, must always coddle them and must never, ever make them feel bad about themselves in any way. The extreme narcissist who has wealth or power will seek out a spouse who makes them look good to others; someone who'll boost their fragile ego. They want a spouse who'll give them a strategic advantage in their social or business dealings.
They'll marry someone who's attractive, wealthy or well-connected. Better yet, all of the above. The extreme narcissist tends to go through spouses like they go through any of their other possessions.
They'll get what they need from their spouse and then trade them in for a new model, in the same way as people go for an upgrade on a vehicle. The spouse of the extreme narcissist shouldn't expect to stick around for long, even if they're willing to put up with the narcissist's selfish or hurtful behaviour.
The extreme narcissist might be superficially charming to people outside their family but at home, they let their true, nasty colours show. They desire recognition and praise, so they'll make the effort to butter up those people who'll speak highly of them in public and bolster their reputation.
At home, they have no need to be pleasant with their spouse. The prey has been caught; the trophy acquired. The spouse of the extreme narcissist should expect neglect at best; abuse at worst. There are two types of people who'll marry an extreme narcissist: One narcissist will marry another, perhaps even more extreme narcissist, to establish a mutually-exploitative and mutually beneficial relationship.
Who Marries An Extreme Narcissist?
Both narcissists understand that there's no love to be found in this arrangement - which is more like a business transaction than a meaningful, intimate connection.
Both people are using the other in order to facilitate their own goals. One narcissist will choose to become the spouse of a more extreme narcissist in order to have a wealthy lifestyle, or more popularity.
They desire social status, influence, fame. Narcissistic admiration is associated primarily with positive correlates such as high self-esteem, grandiosity, benign envy, gratitude, forgiveness, and lower distrust, while their motivation focuses on achievements, self-direction, hedonism, and stimulation; narcissistic rivalry, however, is primarily associated with negative correlates such as low self-esteem, impulsivity, malicious envy, loneliness, low empathy, low trust, and lack of forgiveness, and it is driven by the motive of power Back et al.
The contradictory relations with some of the variables should, however, be interpreted with caution resulting from the high social desirability of narcissists Kowalski et al. This differentiation is also reflected in the social functioning of grandiose narcissists; Paulhus noted that they are initially perceived as charming, competent, and popular, but this perception decreases significantly over time.
The NARC model supplemented this picture, as narcissists at the moment of zero acquaintance are seen as charming Back et al. Vulnerable Narcissism As a more clinical expression of narcissism Cain et al. The HSNS was derived from items that were capturing the meaning of vulnerable narcissism—statements that were selected on the basis of correlations with the composite MMPI-based i.
Ten items that were the most diagnostic regarded hypersensitivity and vulnerability as conceptualized by Winkand significantly loaded on a single factor in three different samples Hendin and Cheek, Thus, the HSNS could be considered as a general unidimensional measure of vulnerable narcissism. Since both of these scales are multidimensional in nature and provide useful insight into better understanding of vulnerable narcissism through the assessment of its different components, but conceptualize narcissism differently, there is controversy as to which of these two measures best captures the phenomenon Miller et al.
However, as assessed by expert ratings, the HSNS has a similar pattern of relations with both personality traits within the normal range and pathological personality traits to the vulnerability scales from the PNI and FFNI Miller et al.
That is useful in clinical practice; conversely, the HSNS is much shorter to administer, making it more useful in screening studies. Narcissism Spectrum Model Although grandiose and vulnerable narcissism are uncorrelated in empirical research, there is some evidence that the rivalry captures a modest amount of vulnerability Miller et al.
These analyses revealed that grandiose narcissism, vulnerable narcissism, and self-esteem were different between age cohorts. Further, a group-effect was predominant in the middle age group; individuals who grew up in West Germany had higher grandiose narcissism and vulnerable narcissism scores and lower self-esteem scores compared with individuals in the same age group who grew up in East Germany.
There were no significant effects in the youngest age cohort. Individuals in the oldest age group from West Germany had higher NPI scores compared with participants from East Germany in the same age group.
The principal findings related to grandiose narcissism, vulnerable narcissism, and self-esteem in all three age classes are illustrated in S1 Fig.
Who Marries An Extreme Narcissist? | HuffPost Canada
Controlling for age and gender does not alter the pattern of results. Discussion This study takes advantage of the natural experiment [ 6970 ] created by the division and reunification of Germany to examine whether political systems affect narcissism and self-esteem. We compared measures of grandiose narcissism, vulnerable narcissism, and self-esteem between individuals who grew up in the territory of former West and East Germany.
We hypothesized that individuals who grew up in the individualistic and capitalistic society of West Germany would have higher grandiose narcissism, and self-esteem scores than individuals who were raised in the collectivistic and socialist society of East Germany.Signs You’re Dating a Narcissist
By analyzing a large, heterogeneous community sample, we demonstrated that individuals from former West Germany have higher grandiose narcissism scores than individuals who grew up in former East Germany, in agreement with our hypothesis. In contrast to our hypothesis, individuals from former East Germany had higher self-esteem than individuals from former West Germany.
These findings were predominantly detected in the middle age cohort and were largely absent in the youngest and oldest cohorts. In the following, we discuss our findings in relation to the proposed narcissism epidemic [ 1 ].
Why were differences in narcissism predominant in the middle age cohort?
Youngest age cohort Personality traits emerge during childhood and adolescence and become more stable in adulthood [ 8182 ]. Political systems may affect the educational system, therefore influence personality development [ 83 ]. In line with this, we found no significant differences in any study measures between individuals who grew up in East or West Germany.
Middle age cohort Participants in the middle age cohort 6—18 years old in grew up either in collectivistic East Germany or individualistic West Germany.
Grandiose narcissism and vulnerable narcissism scores were higher in individuals from West Germany compared to East Germany in this age group. Interestingly, individuals raised in West Germany scored higher on three grandiose subscales of the PNI: EXP interpersonal manipulativenessGF compensatory fantasies of success and recognitionand ER anger in response to unmet expectations that they feel entitled to.
These observations are in line with previous studies arguing that grandiose but not necessarily vulnerable narcissism has increased in Western societies [ 63 ]. Furthermore, our study sample may represent non-clinical individuals, which may explain why no significant differences were observed in two of the three vulnerable PNI subscales in the middle age cohort. There is previously published data showing that vulnerable aspects of the PNI are more strongly associated with psychopathology than grandiose facets [ 1384 ].
Moreover, grandiose aspects of the PNI are associated with tendencies to view oneself as active and energetic and one's life as exciting [ 84 ]. Increased grandiose narcissism in middle-aged individuals from West Germany may be explained by social learning theory [ 85 ].
Overvaluation of children by their parents has previously been hypothesized as the origin of narcissism in children in individualistic societies [ 85 ]. In a prospective study, Brummelman and colleagues confirmed preliminary data [ 86 ] that parental overvaluation predicted narcissism in the child later in life [ 87 ]. It remains to be confirmed whether differences in parental overvaluation existed between the former East and West Germany. Moreover, the work by Bianchi argues that narcissistic self-focus may be viable during economic prosperous times and tempered by economic recession [ 54 ].
Individuals from GDR who came of age during the reunion of Germany faced tumultuous economic times including the loss of job perspectives e. Moreover, East German wages and pensions continue to be below the West German wage level since unification [ 88 ].
Middle-aged individuals from East Germany may score lower on narcissism as they experience lower economic prosperity compared to middle-aged individuals from West Germany. Finally, data from an internet sample from China assessing sociodemographic factors related to grandiose narcissism NPI might help to explain differences in the middle age cohort in our study [ 48 ].
The authors found higher socioeconomic status, offspring of one child families compared to multiple children, living in urban area compared to rural area positively related to grandiose narcissism [ 48 ].
Up from the mid-seventies East Germany had higher birth-rates compared to West-Germany [ 89 ]. Lower socio-economic status in East-Germany compared to West-Germany has already been described and continues to exist [ 88 ]. Oldest age cohort Grandiose narcissism measured with the PNI-G was higher in participants who grew up in West Germany than East Germany in the oldest age cohort, but no significant differences were detected in grandiose narcissism measured with the NPI.
Prior data has shown that grandiose narcissism measured with the NPI is widely captured by the exploitative EXP subscale of the PNI grandiosity scales which reflects a manipulative interpersonal orientation [ 91 ]. In the current study, the exploitative PNI subscale had highest correlation with the NPI score and was by trend higher in the oldest age cohort who grew up in West Germany than East Germany. This discrepancy in grandiose narcissism between the middle and oldest age group may be because narcissism decreases with age [ 92 ].
Older individuals have lower narcissism scores [ 4950 ] and are less susceptible to personality disorders than younger subjects [ 93 ]. Individuals from the oldest age group were in their fifties at the time of the study and may have felt an increased sense of empowerment, security, personal growth, and success than younger participants [ 94 ].
NPI-assessed grandiose narcissism may be more resistant to change throughout life because of its beneficial aspects. Furthermore, some of the mentioned factors valid for the middle age cohort might be less relevant or not applicable for the oldest age cohort, e. Why was self-esteem higher in participants from East Germany? Our finding that self-esteem was higher in individuals from East Germany contradicts previous reports that individuals from more collectivistic East Asian countries have lower self-esteem than individuals from Western cultures [ 43 — 47 ].
We conclude that these earlier findings may not apply to East and West Germany. Furthermore, the assumption that individuals from collectivistic East Asian countries have lower self-esteem than individuals from Western cultures has been stressed by theoretical considerations and empirical data. Sedikides and colleagues argue that one cannot conclude that the level of self-esteem is weaker in East Asian individuals compared to Western individuals [ 95 ].
They argue that the desire for self-esteem is pancultural i. They propose that more refined theoretical formulations and self-report instruments with a high cross cultural sensitivity are needed to better understand within-culture variations in self-esteem including differences between East-Asian cultures, Latino and Middle-Eastern cultures and other Eastern countries.
Furthermore, teaching children individualistic virtues may contribute to lower self-esteem. According to Tafarodi and Walters, individualistic societies promote achievement-dependent self-esteem [ 96 ], i. In line with this, narcissists perform better when self-enhancement opportunity is high rather than low, while the performance of participants with low narcissism is relatively unaffected by self-enhancement opportunity [ 97 ].
Individuals who grew up in West Germany may have lower, achievement-dependent self-esteem i. In contrast, collectivistic societies are directed toward maintaining social harmony [ 42 ]. Individuals who grew up in East Germany may experience higher self-esteem, because it appears to be more independent from achievements and social comparisons.
It is possible that child-perceived parental warmth was more prominent in former East Germany compared with former West Germany. Strengths and limitations The strengths of this study are the large sample size and the combined assessment of grandiose narcissism, vulnerable narcissism, and self-esteem. Most importantly, this study takes advantage of the natural experiment [ 6970 ] created by the German division and reunification.
In this setting, participants share important characteristics such as languagebut are distinct in others such as sociocultural education. Our findings have advanced our understanding of the sociocultural mechanisms underlying individual differences in narcissism.
However, there are some methodological limitations to our study that could be addressed by future research. First, our study is based on associations, and conclusions about causal effects should be tested using longitudinal designs. Second, our methods for assessing narcissism and self-esteem were based on self-reports, which have limited value for assessing personality [ 98 ]. In future studies, negative behaviors associated with narcissism in real life situations should be compared between individuals raised in the former East and West Germany [ 99 — ].
Third, we cannot determine whether our participants answered the online questionnaire honestly. This criticism also applies to offline questionnaires; therefore peer reports or naturalistic observation methods might represent a better approach towards investigating the interpersonal behavior of narcissists . Future studies may use paper pencil tests and more conventional sampling methods.