Persian poetry relationship of lost lovers and basic tenets

Corrections of Popular Versions

The unit of ḡazal, as in most other forms of Persian poetry, is a line (beyt), which ḡazals, not only the ingenuity and charm of their poetic expression are lost, but The key to the characteristics and peculiarities of the ḡazalis the beloved. and offensive to the manly honor of a woman's male relations. You asked about the relationship between Hazrat-e Mevlana and Hz. Shamsu 'd- din of Tabriz. So in this sense Mevlana and Shams certainly were "(spiritual) lovers." And it is a also Western misunderstanding of Persian poetry and Persian recovered from his loss, it is said that Mevlana found Shams in his own heart. Former lover of the poet known as Iran's Sylvia Plath breaks his silence silent about his former lover, a giant of modern Persian literature who was killed her as a poet who wrote honestly about the most fundamental human emotions. Her relationship with Golestan, an enigmatic writer and film-maker.

There are translated quotes from Shams in which he criticized other sufi teachers as "not following" the example of the Prophet sufficiently. We know that Mevlana was married during the time he knew Shams. In this particular sufi path, the disciple is encouraged to cultivate love for the spiritual master within the heart, to visualize the master in the heart or seated in front of one, and to remember the master frequently.

This practice is said to lead to mystical experiences of seeing the spiritual master or "beloved" everywhere and the master's beauty expressed in all things waking or dreaming. And Shams suggested directly to Mevlana that he might have to go away for Mevlana to progress further. After Shams disappeared permanently, and after Mevlana recovered from his loss, it is said that Mevlana found Shams in his own heart.

And in his last years, Mevlana composed thousands of couplets the Mathnawi in which he describes many unitive mystical experiences usually spoken by one of the characters in a storyand rarely mentions the name of Shams. This is very much like "annihilation in God" following "annihilation in the master. Although Islam strictly condemns homosexual behavior, yet homosexual relations would occur sometimes between men and adolescent boys, due to the segregation of unmarried males together and this continues down to the present day, as described in a recent news report about the revival of this centuries-old practice in the Afghan city of Kandahar.

Mevlana condemns homoxexuality among dervishes see below. And Mevlana, Shams, and Mevlana's father have all been quoted as condemning a practice engaged in by some sufis involving homoerotic gazing at attractive young adolescent boys a type of "Platonic love" in which the gazer contemplates Divine Beauty in a lovely "beardless youth".

Mevlana condemns sodomy and effeminate behavior in numerous places in the Mathnawi. This contrast between purity and sodomy would appear to echo one of the passages in the Qur'an which mentions the Divine punishment of the people to whom the Prophet Lot was sent. When he confronted them "Would you commit this abomination with you eyes open? Must you approach men with lust instead of women? There are five references in the Mathnawi to the fate of the people of Lot.

See also the story of the eunuch and the homosexual V: Most illegal sexual behavior of this kind occurred between men and "beardless youths," a behavior which Mevlana clearly condemns. Professor Franklin Lewis has given an excellent rebuttal to Western fantasies of the relationship between Mevlana and Shams in his excellent book which recently won an award"Rumi-- Past and Present, East and West: He points out that Mevlana was about 37 when he met Shams, and that according to Mevlevi tradition Shams was 60 years old.

He described how the homoeroticism in the Persian culture of Mevlana's time was very different from the homosexuality in ours.

The penetrated boy held a socially inferior status. Violation of these social norms led to scandal and legal prosecution. Rumi, as a forty-year-old man engaged in ascetic practices and teaching Islamic law, to say nothing of his obsession with following the example of the Prophet, would not have submitted to the penetration of the sixty-year-old Shams, who was, in any case, like Rumi, committed to following the Prophet and opposed to the worship of God through human beauty.

Rumi did employ the symbolism of homoerotic, or more properly, androgynous love, in his poems addressed to Shams as the divine beloved, but this merely adopts an already year-old convention of the poetry of praise in Persian literature.

Although it is not real distress, yet it is there. The purpose is not for bread, soup with bread crumbs, butcher, or the butcher's business. How long like owls banished about the ruins?

Sometimes it is a demon, sometimes an angel, and sometimes a wild beast. What is this magic talisman which has been put together? At night I laid with You and I didn't know. I had suspected that I was myself, but I was entirely you and I didn't know. Yet, it is in our nature to fight with Love.

We can't see you, mother, hidden behind dark veils woven by ourselves. We were born from love and love was our mother.

Ancient Greek literature

O you who are our mother, you are hidden within our veils, Concealed from our rejecting natures. In the darkness of despair hope is the only light. But in the garden of your life, my dear, never hope that a weeping willow will give you dates. O my heart, don't break off [from] hope, for in the garden of the soul You may yield dates even if you are a willow tree.

Now I am lost, without a place, wandering. With no music like a fool I dance and clap my hands. How am I to live without You? You are everywhere but I can't find You. And you made me hand-clapping without hands, like joy.

I said, "Where am I going, since my soul is in no place? No use for the rosary without Your hand. From afar You order me to dance. But unless You set the stage and draw open the curtain, my Beloved, how can I dance?

And I don't know how to win a pawn [at chess] without your hand. From far away, you keep ordering me to dance. But I don't know how to dance without your melody. Literal Persian translations by Moyne provide the base for the versions by Barks. Versions of Rumi," Barks, "The Illuminated Rumi,"book jacket description.

Barks, "The Essential Rumi,"title page. Ezra Pound lived from and wrote influential works beginning about The poem involves a mystical interpretation of the Islamic ritual prayer. The sufis pray, not just five times a day, but pray to God, the Source of Love and Beauty, in hundreds of ways throughout the day.

The original Persian does not mention "kissing" or "the ground.

Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam - Wikipedia

For a complete translation, explanation of terms, and transliteration of this quatrain, see "There Are A Hundred Kinds of Prayer" in the "Quatrains" section of this website. Here is Barks' full version: Don't open the door to the study and begin reading. Take down the dulcimer.

Barks' addition of the words "Hindu, Buddhist, sufi, or zen" is especially absurd. There is no evidence Rumi knew much more about Judaism or Christianity than what is said in the Qur'an-- not to speak of other religions. Although this is not a Rumi poem, it is a genuine sufi poem. It is best interpreted, not as a repudiation of practicing Islam such as the daily prayersbut as a mystical state of consciousness in which thoughts cease and the Divine Reality is so apparent that mental concepts and beliefs do not seem important: Nicholson admitted that the Persian text for this quatrain did not occur in any of the editions or manuscripts that he used p.

Perhaps he was misled by the final line "O Shamsi Tabriz, I am so drunken" which was composed by someone to make it seem like an authentic Rumi poem. The error here is in interpreting, "I am far from the body" to mean "I'm out of touch with my bodily desires"-- the opposite of Rumi's meaning of being spiritually focused on love of God and not being focussed on the body and physical concerns, such as hunger, comfort, etc.

The mistaken interpretation may have, in part, resulted from misreading "song" [parda] to mean its other meaning of veils or covering-- and doing something to remove such covering. Rumi's verse is addressed to Love, which is universally known by invisible beings fairies as well as visible ones humans.

The second reference is to a famous ring worn by Solomon, which he used to wield power over the jinn genies. The sexualized reference to Solomon and his wives is the versioner's fantasy, since only Solomon's ring is mentioned in the original. The error is in interpreting the words "wedding" and "night" in a sexualized way. However, Rumi's meaning has to do with those who seek God.

The veil, or curtain, is not to give lovers privacy on their wedding night, but to veil mystics who are in an ecstatic state of affirming Divine Unity. Don't Say Anything To God," p. Another over-sexualized interpretation by an author who, especially in his earlier versions, is eager to portray Rumi as a "modern sexually liberated" man-- such as presenting Rumi here as confessing apparently to some friends about his adulterous temptations.

However, although Rumi was an ecstatic mystic, he remained a pious Muslim inclined toward asceticism. Adultery, participating in orgies, and full nudity except in the presence of one's spouse are all forbidden in Islam. The author interpreted Arberry's rendering "We will together dwell" in a sexualized manner sex outside marriage is strictly forbidden in Islam; Rumi was married and had a family, etc.

The original meaning is: Select translations into English Verse,"p. This quatrain was made into another version by Barks based on Moyne"Unseen Rain," p. Here, the versioner has debased the spiritual meaning of Rumi's words "having a beloved" to what sounds like having a woman to cohabitate with outside of marriage.

An over-sexualized response, related to the so-called "virgins of Paradise"-- which are symbols of Heavenly spiritual bliss mentioned in the Qur'an.

Here, the versioner portrays Rumi as depicting a post-orgasmic facial expression. Another over-sexualized interpretation of verses which refer to praise of God and nearness to Him, or praise of the human beloved and the nearness of his invisible presence to the lover. This is not an authentic Rumi quatrain not in the earliest manuscriptsfrom the "pseudo-Foruzanfar" edition, no.

It has been translated by Shahram Shiva, "Hush: Don't Say Anything to God," p. This poem is not about going "beyond good and evil. It is not a rejection of Islam. Rather, it means, "Go beyond your beliefs about whether the 'sun' exists or not: New Rumi Translations by Coleman Barks," p. Barks couldn't resist adding to "Magian wine" a reference to the town of Bethlehem a Christian scriptural reference unfamiliar to Muslims. However, the word "three" does not occur in the original, and there is no suggestion of the three nouns being a unity.

Barks' last line "This dance is the joy of existence" is entirely his own words, not Rumi's. This is a reasonably accurate translation of a verse added to Rumi's Masnavi as were many hundreds over the centuriesnot in the earliest manuscripts, and not characteristic of his thought and teaching. Moyne combined this quatrain with an inauthentic "Masnavi verse" misleadingly-- as if both were a single poem of Rumi's, neither of which he identified in a very biased manner, which portrays Rumi as scornful toward Islam which must be Moyne's viewpoint, since it is not Rumi's.

This quatrain has also been translated by Shahram Shiva,"Rending the Veil," p. The first half of the poem versioned here may have been from an inferior edition of Rumi's quatrains, or else fabricated. In any case, "normal Inspirations From Rumi,"p. This was modified from his first version of this in "The Way of Passion," p.

For someone vaunted as being an Oxford- educated scholar, this is a very dishonest interpretation. In these famous lines, Rumi depicts himself and his spiritual teacher Shams-i Tabriz as being physically apart yet united in soul.

Harvey portrays them as physically "entwined" together in a fiery ecstasy he likes to exaggerate "Rumi's passion" by adding words such as "fire," "fiery," "boiling," etc. Here, Harvey manusfactures "evidence" for his baseless public, not published assertions that there was a homoerotic relationship between this famous spiritual disciple and his famous spiritual master who was age 62 when they first met, according to tradition. For the best clarifying informaiton available on this misunderstanding, see Franklin Lewis, "Rumi-- Past and Present, East and West," pp.

The original poem depicts the joy of the "wedding celebration" of those who seek God and declare His Divine Unity. In contrast, the second two thirds of the version are made-up by the versioner.

Don't Tell God," p. The first half of the version deliberately expresses anti-religious sentiments, yet has no relation to the original meaning in Persian. The version debases this meaning to a kind of "pop psychology" level. The original has to do with how the mystic lover transcends the categories of the mind. The version adds the words "Christian" and "Jew" which are not in the text perhaps to "echo" the inauthentic "Rumi" line, "I am neither Christian, nor Jew, nor Gabr, nor Moslem".

Versions of this quatrain have been made by Shahram Shiva, "Hush: Whispers of the Beloved," p. This is a gross misinterpretation of the original poem, rendered in a popularized format with a "zinger" ending, apparently intended to please a live audience with "Rumi's wit.

This quatrain has also been translated by Arberry, "Discourses of Rumi," p. The Discourses of Jalaluddin Rumi," p. Shahram Shiva translated an accurate translation of this three years later "Rending the Veil," p.

Nevertheless, Star reprinted his same "creatively interpreted" version slightly revisedtwo years after that in, "In the Arms of the Beloved,"p. Obviously, "house of mirrors" is anachronistic and the word "mirror" does not occur in the original. This quatrain was also translated by Shahram Shiva, "Rending the Veil," p. Star skipped over Arberry's line indicative of Shams-i Tabriz's Muslim piety and heterosexuality: Shahram Shiva, "Rending the Veil: Literal and Poetic Translations of Rumi,"p.

Although born in Iran, Shiva who studied Hindu yoga for many years shows an appalling lack of knowledge about basic aspects of Islam. Shahram Shiva, "Rending the Veil," p. Shahram Shiva, "Rending the Veil,"p. Aside from this not being an authentic Rumi poem, the idea of desiring "your own divinity" is alien to Islam and Islamic mysticism sufism. This is clearly Shiva's personal interpretation perhaps a result of his studying Hindu yoga for many yearssince his literal translation is accurate: This is not an authentic Rumi quatrain it is not in the earliest manuscriptsfrom the "pseudo-Foruzanfar" edition, no.

This is not an authentic Rumi quatrain it is not in the earliest manuscripts. It is from the "pseudo-Foruzanfar" edition, no. It is from the "pseudo-Foruzanfar" edition, no Denigrating the Ka'ba the cube-shaped temple in Mecca, Arabia is not characteristic of Rumi's thought. This is a fairly accurate translation but it would be more accurate to translated "a Muslim and sometimes a Jew It is not characteristic of Rumi's thought to declare that he is he is mystically a Jew and a Christian, as well as a Muslim, or manifests like an "avatar" to Christians in a Christian form and to Jews in a Jewish form.

The error here resulted from not knowing that "kwn" is an Arabic word-- "kawn" meaning, literally, "existence. Don't Say Anything to God,"p. There is no demand, protest, or ultimatum in the original poem-- and "becoming bared" has a symbolic meaning and not a literal meaning of nudism.

Don't Say Anything to God," pp. The original clearly states, "for the sake of God, don't say The word "God" does not appear in the latter verses-- only the words, "Don't say To portray Rumi as prostrating in worship to a star is absurdly contrary to Islam and Islamic mysticism sufism.

However, the reference here is a prostration [sajda] of bowing to a king or a "spiritual king," meaning a sufi master-- not of worship. The request is that the humble bowing be sent by the star to Rumi's spiritual master Shams, which literally means "sun"and is not a prostration to the star.

Deepak Chopra, "The Soul in Love"pp. He adds the word "wild," and gives a different meaning to the second half of the quatrain.

When compared to six other published translations and versions of this quatrain, his most resembles that of Barks and Moyne "Let the lover be disgraceful, crazy, absentminded. Someone sober will worry about events going badly. Let the lover be. Thus, it appears that this is a version based upon another version, and if so, he may have interpreted Barks' interpretation "Let the lover be" to mean, "Leave the lover alone if you aren't a lover. There is a pun here between "wild one" [shayd] and "wiles" [shayd].

Cowan evidently became so enthusiastic about his idea that "wild one" was "title" for Shams, that he inserted "Wild One" in ten other places where it does not occur in the Persian text a second time, p.

This is one of the most frequently quoted poems attributed to Rumi, but is not authenticated as his and it is also not in the earliest manuscripts of the quatrains attributed to him. It is one among the most frequently quoted poems by Turkish Mevlevis the "Whirling Dervishes" themselves who have long assumed it to be a Rumi poemfrom a Turkish translation of the original Persian.

It was composed before his time. Translated here by Gamard and Farhadi. This is a reference to the Qur'anic account of how God taught Adam the "names", which even the angels did not know 2: The meaning here is that Adam's knowledge of Divine Realities would have been greater if he had not been confined in a physical body.

Ergin's translation sounds strange, for how can the teaching of a human being be "better than the attributes of God? Meter 1,"p. While verbal references to "beautiful idols" in Persian poetry have been commonplace for centuries and understood by all Persian readers as purely metaphorical the idea of silver statues of human beings is repugnant to Muslims and the Islamic faith. Portraying Rumi as mentioning such statues even as a metaphor of the beloved is unfortunate.

In the Persian text the word "bar" chest, breast, bosom clearly occurs, modified by the word "silvery. In one case, Rumi used this metaphor in the Masnavi IV: Meter 2,"p. Here is another example of wrongly portraying his beloved as like a silver "statue. Meter 2,"pp. There is no public nudity in Islam or Islamic mysticism sufism. To interpret, "The real essence of God manifests" is absurd since the Divine Essence is "veiled" by the Divine Attributes -- and there is no idea of this in the original text.

The reference here is to the gland on the underside of the musk ox from which musk perfume is derived. The metaphor involves the sweet enchanting scent of the beloved's hair. The rendering, "I am glorified by I want glory from him" sounds as if Shams- i Tabriz is worshiped as Divine or else it sounds egotistical. At any rate, viewing one's spiritual teacher as a Divine incarnation is an inappropriate interpretation of Islamic sufi poetry. There is a word-play here because "Shamsuddin" means the "Sun of the Religion.

Portraying Rumi as advising anyone to imitate a devil is unfortunate. In Islam, jinn are viewed as mostly mischievous, or outright evil.

Rumi - Wikiquote

In the Qur'an, some are mentioned as being sincere believers in the One True God. Here "that Fairy" is a metaphor for the attractiveness of the spiritual beloved and master Shams. Somehow presumably the intermediate translation into Turkish was a major factorthe meaning of these lines ended up as misinterpreted.

There is no "looking at God" in the original Persian verse. Revised in "The Knowing Heart,"p.