The working relationship between the student teacher and mentor needs careful . Although this list outlines the difference in tasks between tutors and mentors. Building the relationship with a beginning teacher. 1. 2. Mentoring provides a powerful opportunity to improve students' learning outcomes through teachers mentoring relationship entails. Hargreaves (in press) outlines four broad. outlines how the mentoring relationship participants can actively during professional placements (or practicum) in which student teachers are being placed.
In modern times, the concept of mentoring has found application in virtually every forum of learning. In academics, mentor is often used synonymously with faculty adviser. A fundamental difference between mentoring and advising is more than advising; mentoring is a personal, as well as, professional relationship.
An adviser might or might not be a mentor, depending on the quality of the relationship. A mentoring relationship develops over an extended period, during which a student's needs and the nature of the relationship tend to change.
A mentor will try to be aware of these changes and vary the degree and type of attention, help, advice, information, and encouragement that he or she provides. In the broad sense intended here, a mentor is someone who takes a special interest in helping another person de- Page 2 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Adviser, Teacher, Role Model, Friend: The National Academies Press.
Some students, particularly those working in large laboratories and institutions, find it difficult to develop a close relationship with their faculty adviser or laboratory director. They might have to find their mentor elsewhere-perhaps a fellow student, another faculty member, a wise friend, or another person with experience who offers continuing guidance and support.
In the realm of science and engineering, we might say that a good mentor seeks to help a student optimize an educational experience, to assist the student's socialization into a disciplinary culture, and to help the student find suitable employment. These obligations can extend well beyond formal schooling and continue into or through the student's career. The Council of Graduate Schools cites Morris Zelditch's useful summary of a mentor's multiple roles: Good mentors are able to share life experiences and wisdom, as well as technical expertise.
They are good listeners, good observers, and good problem-solvers. They make an effort to know, accept, and respect the goals and interests of a student. In the end, they establish an environment in which the student's accomplishment is limited only by the extent of his or her talent. Page 3 Share Cite Suggested Citation: In general, however, each relationship must be based on a common goal: You as mentor can also benefit enormously. Different students will require different amounts and kinds of attention, advice, information, and encouragement.
Some students will feel comfortable approaching their mentors; others will be shy, intimidated, or reluctant to seek help.
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A good mentor is approachable and available. Often students will not know what questions to ask, what information they need, or what their options are especially when applying to graduate programs.
A good mentor can lessen such confusion by getting to know students and being familiar with the kinds of suggestions and information that can be useful. In long-term relationships, friendships form naturally; students can gradually become colleagues.
At the same time, strive as a mentor to be aware of the distinction between friendship and favoritism.
You might need to remind a student-and yourself-that you need a degree of objectivity in giving fair grades and evaluations. If you are unsure whether a relationship is "too personal," you are probably not alone. Consult with the department chair, your own mentor, or others you trust. You might have to increase the mentor-student distance.
Students, for their part, need to understand the professional pressures and time constraints faced by their mentors and not view them as merely a means-or impediment-to their goal. For many faculty, mentoring is not their primary responsibility; in fact, time spent with students can be time taken from their own research. Students are obliged to recognize the multiple demands on a mentor's time.
At the same time, effective mentoring need not always require large amounts of time. An experienced, perceptive mentor can provide great help in just a few minutes by mak- Page 5 Share Cite Suggested Citation: This section seeks to describe the mentoring relationship by listing several aspects of good mentoring practice.
Mentoring, in a pre-service teacher context, occurs during professional placements or practicum in which student teachers are being placed with classroom teachers to learn, develop and practise teaching knowledge and skills The Queensland College of Teachers, This literature review is concerned only with researched-based mentoring literature and is drawn from an array of disciplines that include the pre-service teacher context.
Specific criteria were applied to the research literature to ensure creditability: A wide range of literature was reviewed however many did not meet specified criteria, however the mentoring works of seminal researchers such as Kram were also included.
Literature which satisfied the criteria were coded, however those that did not focus upon research that specifically examined mentoring processes and roles were discarded. The aim of this paper is to critically examine the research literature in order to: It is evident from the literature that there is no single definition for mentoring. Even in the pre-service teacher education context, the definitions vary greatly giving the reader differing impressions as to what mentoring is.
However, Fairbanks, Freedman and Kahnp.
Mentoring can be described as an intense interpersonal relationship Kram, and Smith notes that mentoring is a process which develops the whole person, rather than parts.
Kwan and Lopezp. However in view of the definition by Fairbanks et al. But despite the foregoing, most definitions in the literature do not consider all of the above three components that embrace mentoring — relationship, process and context.
Lai describes the three components in terms of dimensions — relational, developmental and contextual. Relational refers to the relationship between mentors and mentees. Developmental refers to how mentors and mentees develop personally and professionally whilst aiming towards particular goals. Contextual focuses on cultural and situational features of the mentoring setting.
Lai notes that it is these three components which create and impact upon a mentoring relationship. Therefore the remainder of this paper will view mentoring as an event that comprises the three components as described by Lai. The mentoring context in pre-service teacher education Mentoring has replaced supervision in most cases in the pre-service teacher education context, but it is unclear from the research literature how mentoring is implemented and operates in this context Walkington, b; Hudson, Bray and Nettleton discuss the differences between mentoring and supervision.
Mentoring as described in the literature generally involves supporting and providing feedback to the mentee without judgement or criteria. Walkington b highlights an important difference between supervising and mentoring in her study of the mentoring of pre- service teachers, that being the issue of assessment.
According to Walkington bassessment is associated with supervising not mentoring: Hudson and Millwater describe supervision as having the key purpose of assessment performance, whereas mentoring is about building trust within a relationship. Zeegers describes supervision as an outdated practica model, but notes that pre-service teachers need to develop specific skills and competencies in process of learning to teach.
Despite the highlighted differences between mentoring and supervision, mentors in pre-service teacher education engage in both mentoring and supervisory roles.