The most common way to express population growth is as a percentage, not as a rate. people at the two times—net difference between births, deaths; a growth rate the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine . I will provide evidence pertaining to the effect of population growth on This means that neither the educational systems nor the health services can be on a large scale, such as the provision of family planning and safe abortion. There is a small difference in abortion rates per women aged between. the relationship between family planning and health services. This paper analyzes the interrelationships between health and population growth as part of the process of general devel- . It is worth noting that the provision of medical care does.
Instead people are living to ages where what had previously been uncommon conditions in a relatively small number of elderly people are becoming the dominant causes of illness and mortality The combination of high birth rates post war 'baby boom generation'combined with this group's lower fertility and access to contraception, became known as the 'demographic time bomb', as population scientists and planners foresaw the effect of extended life expectancy, increased proportions of retired elderly people, and smaller numbers of working age people, especially women, to act as carers or professional health care workers.
Local population health needs can vary significantly as a result of the proportions of different ethnic groups in the population. Within the UK, an increasing proportion of the population are of African descent, among whom many can suffer from sickle cell disease. It is believed that the sickle cell mutation confers some degree of immunity to malaria, but it also places increased demands on the haematological services of the NHS.
Certain cultural practices can also have unexpected effects on health. The skeletal disorders rickets and osteomalacia arise from lack of vitamin D. The main source of vitamin D is the action of sunlight on human skin, and this is most efficient on paler skins, as the effect of melanin is to mitigate the process.
The adoption of all covering dress, for religious reasons, has resulted in these diseases recurring among certain communities in the UK, especially where housing conditions do not allow for private gardens where the cultural dress rules are relaxed. Sufficient vitamin D to make up the difference cannot be obtained from a normal diet, and experiments in supplementing margarine with vitamin D were abandoned when some people developed problems with calcium metabolism from excessive amounts of the supplement.
It is possible for specific vitamin D supplementation to be prescribed medically, and the local guidelines for this should be revised if necessary to included consideration of religious dress.
How can health services keep pace with the rapid growth of cities?
Prevalence of conditions such as diabetes also vary between different ethnic groups in the population sometimes creating different problems in local areas. A third influence on population structure and health arises from migration and the social status of migrants. This could add up to 36, working students to the system by Compulsory training in public hospitals was inspired by the NHS. In addition, Brazil has recruited at least 10, doctors from Cuba to work in the poverty-plagued favelas on the peripheries of cities, as well as in remote areas.
The chronic shortage of clinicians is encouraging countries to make better use of volunteers and community workers.
Toronto [pdf] has been trying to bring together its primary and hospital services to provide joined-up care for patients with several health conditions. This includes individual care plans, one point of contact, and multidisciplinary teams supporting high-risk patients after they have been discharged from hospital. Is city living bad for your health?
Read more Toronto also provides impressive support for people living on the streets with mental illness. Its Streets to Homes programme includes incentives for private landlords to offer accommodation.
POPULATION GROWTH, HEALTH AND SANITATION | Kwame Y Boakye - ommag.info
Yet for many people, access to healthcare depends on the ability to pay, which excludes swathes of the population. Increasingly, countries such as ChinaThailand and Indonesia are addressing this problem by pursuing universal healthcare.
At present around two in five countries have some form of universal healthcare. Britnell argues that its expansion is being driven by two opposing forces: Providing more equal access to health services strengthens social cohesion and promotes economic growth.
But while developing countries are increasing the proportion of their wealth spent on healthcare, urban populations are expanding so quickly that it is all but impossible to provide the health infrastructure and staff to keep pace. Faster progress can be made, however, in improving the environment, such as providing cleaner air and water. For this reason, the WHO believes local government — and particularly executive mayors — are central to improving city health.
Violence, climate change, obesity: Kuwait City has reduced salt content in bread to tackle high blood pressure. London and Paris were among the first cities to attempt to cut traffic pollution and increase exercise by offering free bicycle use. Poor road safety takes many urban lives.