Accountability definition and relationship to verifiability

Verifiable Claims Use Cases

Our definition reveals that accountability is closely related to verifiability, for which we also propose a new definition. We prove that verifiability can be interpreted. ABSTRACT. Accountability plays a key role in dependable distributed systems. It Accountability: definition and relationship to verifiability. However, our model and definitions of verifiability are constrained neither to the The notion of accountability is strongly related to verifiability as the latter's goal .

The individual researcher has an independent responsibility not to accept departures from good scientific practice, on his or her own account or that of others. Good citation practice It is in the nature of research to build on research by others. Researchers who take advantage of the ideas and research by others, both published and unpublished, must acknowledge this accurately, so that it is clear what the researcher's own contribution is.

Researchers must give a balanced and correct presentation of the research of others. Citations make research traceable and verifiable. Verification Researchers and research institutions must make data available to others for verification after a certain period. If the data are not used within this period, they should be made available to other researchers.

Within the framework of existing rules and regulations, institutions should have guidelines and procedures for preserving research data, in such a way that they can be retrieved - also after researchers have finished working at the institution.

Researchers must observe good publication practice. They must clarify individual responsibilities in group work as well as the rules for co-authorship. Honorary authorship is unacceptable. When several authors contribute, each authorship must be justified.

All authors in a multidisciplinary publication must be able to account for the part or parts for which they have been responsible in the research work, and which part or parts are the responsibility of other contributors.

Verifiable Claims Use Cases

It is essential that data be verifiable. Standardization of digital claim technologies makes it possible for many stakeholders to issue, earn, and trust these essential records about their counterparties, without being locked into proprietary platforms. Taken together, these models define the use cases that the Verifiable Claims Working Group will address.

User needs define the problem space Verifiable Claims addresses. User Roles specify the roles different entities play when interacting with Verifiable Claims.

Tasks define the functions users can accomplish and sequences demonstrate how tasks might be realized by interactions between entities over time. As with all models, this use case model is neither exhaustive nor complete.

The listed uses cannot exhaustively capture all possible use cases. Similarly, the models do not completely characterize the use cases represented. However, the combined model provides specific, coherent guidance for the work ahead. User roles There are four roles supported by Verifiable Claims: Issuer, Inspector, Subject, and Holder.

Automated Analysis of Accountability

Issuer The entity that creates a claim and associates it with a particular subject. Inspector The entity verifying a claim about a given subject.

Subject The entity about whom a claim is issued. Holder The entity who controls a particular claim. Often the subject of the claim, but not always. For example, the subject of a claim might be a pet who has received a vaccination. The holder of that claim is likely the pet's owner, not the pet.

A holder is typically the initiator of the transmission of a claim. User needs Verifiable Claims address user needs in a number of key domains: As part of that process, the bank asks her to provide two from a variety of possible sources to confirm her identity - a so called "Know Your Customer" check. She selects government-supplied verifiable claims that confirm she receives postal mail at a certain address and that she has a national ID card.

Confirming these allows the bank to open her account and be confident in her identity when she conducts transactions. Now that the account is open, Jane is issued a digitally signed credential for her checking account at MidBank. This credential verifies that Jane has an account at MidBank and has access to her associated checking account. Since MidBank and all banks in Finland are required to perform "Know Your Customer" checks on accounts, this credential can also be used as sufficient verification by other financial institutions.

This can help Jane assure destination banks that she is verified, thereby allaying concerns about misdirected transactions and money laundering. She has verifiable claims in her credential repository that can be used to share her identity profile.

Define: Accountability

She has also been sent a claim from her family verifying their banking information. By sharing these with the money transfer service, they can automatically verify the source and destination of funds, thus being confident in the delivery of those funds and satisfying various regulations regarding prevention of money laundering.

Some time later, John is moving to a new city and decides to close that account. Big Bank Co needs to revoke that claim as part of their normal account closing process. She had placed all of her claims in a credential repository at BigBank that came free when she opened her accounts. WallStreetCo is now offering a new repository that has an interface she thinks she will prefer. Nikita copies her claims from BigBank into the repository at WallStreetCo to experiment with their service, but continues to use the service from BigBank while she is testing.

BigOnlineBank offers the ability to do this from home if she can provide electronic credentials. She offers government issued certificates that verify her identity address, national identity number, etc. Joleen has been a pioneering registrar in advocating an 'extended transcript' that includes not only the standard set of course grades but also adds supplementary information on learner competencies.

These might include work experiences and non-educational but marketable skills. Upon the request of her students Joleen issues digital credentials that encapsulates an extended transcript.

Scientific integrity, truthfulness and accountability - Etikkom

When she arrives at the testing center, she is required to present identification. Her government-issued identity certificate is acceptable, as the verifiable claims contained in it reflect all of the required attributes and it is impossible to counterfeit.

accountability definition and relationship to verifiability

His school provides a credential repository service to all students and alumni, so he chooses to use it. In his third year, Rocky decides to transfer to Moosylvania Tech. They do not offer a service, but he does not want to continue to use the service of his old and now rival school so he moves his claims to the service offered by his bank without needing to have them reissued. Nick is participating in a course online and takes a test. He is required to provide his credentials to prove his identity before the test, and then to allow the system to issue a verifiable claim regarding the results of his test.

This domain looks at everything from physicial interaction to connecting patients and providers with service organizations. The state's board issues Barney a digital certificate confirming that he is certified to practice medicine in that state. Barney can now use this certificate when writing prescriptions and referrals, thereby improving accountability and verifiability.

It includes a certificate about the physician that issued the prescription as well as one about Bob. When Bob arrives to pick up his medication, iPharmacy further correlates his identity with the certificate, thereby improving the end-to-end accountability of their system. She finds a physician through her health care network and goes in for treatment. She is a new patient, so the clinic needs to know who she is and how she will be paying. When checking in, she presents her verifiable claim that demonstrates her identity and her proof of insurance.

When the clinc submits this to the insurance company, they can automatically ascertain that she submitted her proof of identity and insurance to the provider and granted the physician the ability to submit the claim for payment.

Falling ill, he visits a health clinic in a country in which he does not live. At the clinic he is asked for proof of identity. He provides a credential that verifies his name and address, but elects not to disclose his marital status nor his social security number, as those are neither requested nor required at this clinic.

He further marks the disclosure as expiring in 30 days - he does not want his information verifiable after that time. This includes brick-and-mortar store fronts, web-only venues, and even person-to-person sales. When processing orders, Giant Shoe Company wants to be certain that his shipping address is accurate inaccurate addresses are very expensive in terms of customer service.

They offer a discount for customers who make verifiable addresses available as part of the checkout process. Francis offers his certificate and gets the perfect shoes for even less than he expected.

accountability definition and relationship to verifiability

She submits her identity credential that lets the liquor store owner know that she is over 21 without having to reveal her actual date of birth, her address, or her state ID number. Professional accreditation is one way of learning about the abilities of an entity.

Being able to verify these credentials is essential to their value. His health provider includes information on their web site about the physicians they have on staff, including verifiable credentials about their education, board certification, and continuing education. Jason can verify these credentials and be confident that his new physician satisfies his requirements. Since the board can revoke his certification, credential inspectors will automatically be aware that he can no longer issue prescriptions or perform medical procedures.

It was later discovered that BigTraining Co. Jane's credential is therefore invalid, and prospective employers will be aware of this when they check her certifications. She has a variety of digital claims that explain her qualifications, schooling, continuing education achievements, and board certifications. These are all stored in the credential repository provided by her employer.

When she is offered a position with another health provider network, she can automatically transfer all of these claims to her new employer.

She lists her employment history and credentials including degrees, certificates, and digital badges. The website requests verification of her credential claims in order for her credentials to visible when she posts messages.