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Biology and physics are moving away from a “reductionist” view of function, . stage in human moral development, created a useful definition of right relationship. . to the continuing expansion of finance and consumption and to prosperity for. The latter definition views health more broadly but risks assigning to the "health" system full responsibility individual response (behavior and biology), . The relationship between prosperity and health holds across the economic spectrum. This tutorial introduces species relationships. Other sections include animal systems, ommag.info(biology) Wikipedia ( Competition).

The review focused on the health and financial impacts of workplace health-promotion services targeting obesity. Yet with few exceptions, the average weight loss was only 3 pounds during 6—month follow-up evaluations Serxner et al. This does not necessarily mean that there was a program failure, as weight control and preventing unsustainable weight loss are both positive outcomes. In a recent presentation, Edington emphasized that the goals should be keeping individuals from getting worse and keeping the risk low.

As part of this, many worksite wellness programs focus on health risk assessments HRAs and biometric screenings to identify and control risks. However, Soler et al. Many of the companies presented in their review were in favor of HRAs, yet only small or modest gains were found and several potential sources of bias were noted.

Still, there were more meaningful outcomes for reducing tobacco use, alcohol use, dietary fat intake, blood pressure, cholesterol, and increasing seatbelt use when follow-up was conducted after HRAs.

However, the outcomes were based on unsubstantiated self-reporting. Regarding nutrition and weight loss, the findings were dismal due to the intake of fruits and vegetables, body composition, and physical fitness. O'Donnell stated that the findings were not surprising based on his research, confirming that HRAs and education alone were not enough. Again, indicating what researchers acknowledge and what has been slower in practice, much broader and multilevel approaches are needed for sustainable health behavior changes.

This being said, positive workplace wellness ROI studies have been published related to absenteeism and disease management Aldana et al. A systematic review and analysis of published workplace health-promotion research indicated that positive clinical and cost-saving outcomes were mostly due to disease management programs Chapman, ; Pellitier, ; Serxner et al.

A quasi-experimental study investigating the effectiveness of health and productivity management HPM found a cost-saving ROI during years 2 and 3, but with a slighter decrease Serxner et al.

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The cost—benefit results from the focus on high-risk individuals who had higher medical costs and were absent more from work K. Pelletier, ; Serxner et al. The outcomes were reduced absenteeism as well as fewer hospitalizations and doctor visits. Other studies found no significant differences in healthcare costs between those who participated in any one wellness program during a year time-frame with those who did not participate Aldana et al. The findings, however, again indicated a significant negative association between participation and absenteeism, with nonparticipants having a higher rate of absenteeism than employees who participated in any one program during the one-year period.

A recent meta-evaluation on worksite health-promotion ROI found that despite many design and measurement inconsistencies, there were strong reductions in sick leave, health plan costs, workers' compensation, and disability insurance Chapman, One meta-analysis mentioned was by Baicker, Cuttler and Song. Instead, he recommended the use of cost trends.

Health as a complex concept What the research in this area lacks is consideration for the complexity of health and health behaviors beyond a focus on disease. Another concern is that combining disease management with wellness initiatives makes it difficult to determine the effectiveness.

In addition, this attention perpetuates a disease mentality that focuses on individual medical conditions and physical health risks alone. Literature supports that sustained health behaviors are not accomplished without consideration of other determining factors, including other dimensions of health in addition to the physical as well as social determinants of health.

There are the models of other health dimensions besides physical health, such as Five Dimensions by O'Donnell that includes physical, spiritual, emotional, social, occupation, and intellectual; Hettler's Six Dimensions of Health that includes occupation; and Rath and Harter dimensions of career, physical, financial, community, and social.

These dimensions are rarely ever considered in most workplace wellness programs, and when they are considered it's without any level of significance.

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Keyes and Grzywacz emphasize that not doing so cannot lead to complete health. Their research indicates that complete health balances the absence of morbidity with the presence of well-being.

Pelletier cited the importance of the impact of corporate culture, including supervisor and co-worker support for improved health status. Few of the interventions cited here focused on the physical, psychological, or policy work environment and its role in employee health … it is evident that employees need to know that their organization is seriously concerned about their health … Employees need to perceive that their senior management, supervisors, and co-workers have positive attitudes toward health since these factors have all been associated with improved employee health status.

Interventions and evaluations of workplace programs may benefit from including such components and measures of the work environment in order to determine the influence of such factors on the overall clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of these interventions.

Pelletier,p. Simply focusing on individual responsibility for health and adopting healthier behaviors ignore the influence of contextual factors that shape behaviors Cherniack, ; Goetzel et al. Dee Edington Terry, captured this sentiment when he stated: Behavior change is really the mantra of wellness, but if a person achieves a lifestyle behavior change, only to return to the same unhealthy environment, what can we expect will happen?

Deci and Ryan's self-determination theory SDT suggests that humans have a basic need for autonomy, competence, and relatedness, and also tendencies toward growing, mastering challenges, and integrating new experiences with support and barriers.

Essential to the theory is the workplace in terms of these supports and barriers. SDT propositions focus on how social and cultural factors facilitate or undermine people's sense of volition and initiative, in addition to their well-being and the quality of their performance http: Similarly, Pink found that employees desire autonomy, mastery, and meaning over money or other extrinsic rewards.

At this level, wellness programs move beyond health risks, individual focus and healthcare cost savings, to create thriving and prosperity for individuals and organizations. Deci noted that there are hundreds of scientific studies which have demonstrated that autonomous behavior results in more creativity, problem-solving, more positive emotions and better physical and psychological health.

By doing so, places the responsibility solely on individual employees, virtually ignoring the impact that the working environment may have on health and unhealthy behaviors. Pearson and Porath researched the prevalence of these uncivil behaviors for the past decade. In fact, when testing their model of healthy organizations, Wilson et al. Conclusions from their study on physical environmental changes to support exercise, Blunt and Hallam acknowledged that organizational social support is important to individuals' perception of the environment and the need for future research to address this aspect.

Determining factors for health From this perspective health is not just a biophysical condition, but a dynamic process that includes a social component. Health and health behaviors are entwined with well-being and grounded within the social context of living. Health cannot be broken down into components, but must be understood from this comprehensive and holistic definition.

Using a social ecological framework instead of individual behavior change models supports this understanding. In addition to individual change, addressing the physical and the social workplace environment needs to be considered for sustainable health practices. With this consideration, workplace health promotion cannot be effective by focusing on individual risk factors alone, such as reducing blood pressure or cholesterol levels, increasing physical activity, or reducing obesity.

Instead, the broader components need to be addressed, including the physical and social issues of the workplace that may influence health and health behaviors. This broader focus is not to deny individual responsibility, but only to establish the need to consider additional influential factors. What is striking is that behavior change initiatives are primarily focused on a medical disease model of finding and treating pathogenic conditions. This attempts to reduce health to an absence of disease without regard to overall well-being and determining factors that influence health behaviors.

Although education remains important, health education is not a monolithic activity DiClemente et al. This scope moves beyond the definitions currently popular in worksite wellness programs. The best known definition in the profession of health promotion — which has remained championed from its inception — is that health is an optimal state or balance of physical, emotional, social, spiritual and intellectual health O'Donnell, These definitions imply that health is more than just being disease-free; however, the definitions also indicate health as a state or condition, without consideration for the dynamic and complex aspects of health.

Also, as stated earlier in this article, it is the physical dimension of health that garners the most emphasis. The broader definition of health shifts the focus from a medical model and disease risk factors to intersect with well-being. In their studies, questions such as rating ones health as poor, fair, good, or excellent, and rating one's health in comparison to others with similar demographics were more predictive of health status than objective health measures such as blood pressure, blood cholesterol, exercise, or even weight.

Ryff and Singer provided a concise summary of well-being as an umbrella term, which encompasses the UNESCO's definition and describes health and well-being using three principles: Health is not a medical question but a philosophical position pertaining to the meaning of the good life for each individual.

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Health includes the interconnection of mind and body. Health is multidimensional and dynamic process; that is an engagement in living and is an expression of human potential of intellect, social, emotional, and physical. From this broader perspective, well-being and health are used interchangeably.

This runs parallel with the current emphasis in the field of psychology on helping individuals thrive and flourish. This is a change from a disease and risk-based approach, an important and interesting note since the wellness behavior change models are based on psychology and medical models.

Termed as Positive Psychology, the approach considers how three critical dimensions of life experience — pleasure, engagement and meaning — combine to create life satisfaction.

It is reasonable to suggest that the characteristics of workplace relationships found in this current study and the character strengths found in the positive psychology literature are connected in some way.

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The empirical findings show that the character strengths are valued by adults around the world, including all states within the USA. The most commonly endorsed strengths are kindness, fairness, authenticity, gratitude, and open-mindedness, and the lesser strengths consistently included prudence, modesty, and self-regulation. It is not a stretch to realize the impact of these strengths on health and well-being. Surprisingly, the complexity and social aspects of health as well as health behaviors, leading to sustainable healthy lifestyle changes were originally the intent of the Surgeon General Report U.

Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Many organisms are involved in symbiotic relationships because this interaction provides benefits to both species.

However, there are types of symbiosis that are not beneficial and may in fact harm one or both of the species. Symbiotic relationships can be obligate or facultative. Obligate symbiosis is when two organisms are in a symbiotic relationship because they can't survive without each other. Facultative symbiosis is when the species live together by choice. There are four main types of symbiotic relationships: Mutualism Mutualism occurs when both species benefit from the interaction.

Because mutualism is beneficial to both species involved, there are a wide variety of mutualistic interactions, and these are most common in nature. For example, there may be a nutritional benefit to be gained from the symbiosis, such as with lichen. Lichen is made up of both algae and fungi, and together they provide each other with food and structure.

This type of symbiosis is both obligate and mutualistic. Pollination symbiosis is another example of an obligate, mutualistic symbiosis. Pollinators, such as bees and birds, receive nectar from plants while transporting pollen that the plants need for fertilization.