Friedrich Engels - Wikiquote
May 4, It has been years since the birth of Karl Marx, but the German Chapter 4, " Position of the Communists in Relation to the Various Existing. Quotations by Karl Marx, German Philosopher, Born May 5, but expresses the sum of interrelations, the relations within which these individuals stand. Karl Marx, Jenny von Westphalen and Engels On Love and Marriage. Marx married his childhood sweetheart, Jenny von Westphalen, and stayed married for life.
If we take a closer look at the connection between this latter branch of production and society as a whole, we shall rid ourselves of many prejudices. Marx, Theories of Surplus Value All economists share the error of examining surplus-value not as such, in its pure form, but in the particular forms of profit and rent.
I cannot go to Geneva. I consider that what I am doing through this work is far more important for the working class than anything I might be able to do personally at any Congress.
Words to live by: Important quotes from Karl Marx
Marx, Letter to Kugelmann The wealth of those societies in which the capitalist mode of production prevails, presents itself as "an immense accumulation of commodities," its unit being a single commodity.
Our investigation must therefore begin with the analysis of a commodity. Marx, Capital, Volume I, Chapter One The different proportions in which different sorts of labour are reduced to unskilled labour as their standard, are established by a social process that goes on behind the backs of the producers, and, consequently, appear to be fixed by custom.
As William Petty says, labour is the father of material wealth, the earth is its mother. Marx, Capital, Volume I, Chapter One The secret of the expression of value, namely, that all kinds of labour are equal and equivalent, because, and so far as they are human labour in general, cannot be deciphered, until the notion of human equality has already acquired the fixity of a popular prejudice.
This, however, is possible only in a society in which the great mass of the produce of labour takes the form of commodities, in which, consequently, the dominant relation between man and man, is that of owners of commodities. Marx, Capital, Volume I, Chapter One A commodity appears, at first sight, a very trivial thing, and easily understood. Its analysis shows that it is, in reality, a very queer thing, abounding in metaphysical subtleties and theological niceties.
Marx, Capital, Volume I, Chapter One the existence of the things qua commodities, and the value-relation between the products of labour which stamps them as commodities, have absolutely no connection with their physical properties and with the material relations arising therefrom.
There it is a definite social relation between men, that assumes, in their eyes, the fantastic form of a relation between things. This I call the Fetishism He begins, post festum, with the results of the process of development ready to hand before him.
They are forms of thought expressing with social validity the conditions and relations of a definite, historically determined mode of production, viz.
- Karl Marx Quotes
- Friedrich Engels
- 130 Karl Marx Quotes & 30 Frederick Engels Quotes
The whole mystery of commodities, all the magic and necromancy that surrounds the products of labour as long as they take the form of commodities, vanishes therefore, so soon as we come to other forms of production. Marx, Capital, Volume I, Chapter One Political Economy has indeed analysed, however incompletely, value and its magnitude, and has discovered what lies beneath these forms.
But it has never once asked the question why labour is represented by the value of its product and labour-time by the magnitude of that value. What the latter sells is his labour-power. As soon as his labour actually begins, it has already ceased to belong to him; it can therefore no longer be sold by him.
Labour is the substance, and the immanent measure of value, but has itself no value.
Marx Quotes: Quotes from Karl Marx and Frederick Engels
Marx, Capital, Volume I, Chapter 25 Centralization of the means of production and socialization of labor at last reach a point where they become incompatible with their capitalist integument. Thus integument is burst asunder. The knell of capitalist private property sounds. The expropriators are expropriated. Marx, Capital, Volume I, Chapter 32 here individuals are dealt with only in so far as they are the personifications of economic categories, embodiments of particular class-relations and class-interests.
My standpoint, from which the evolution of the economic formation of society is viewed as a process of natural history, can less than any other make the individual responsible for relations whose creature he socially remains, however much he may subjectively raise himself above them.
Marx, Preface to First German Edition of Capital The country that is more developed industrially only shows, to the less developed, the image of its own future. I think that German women should begin by driving their husbands to self-emancipation.
Marx, Letter to Kugelmann Everyone who knows anything of history also knows that great social revolutions are impossible without the feminine ferment. Social progress may be measured precisely by the social position of the fair sex plain ones included.
EMarx, Letter to Kugelmann The English have at their disposal all necessary material preconditions for a social revolution. What they lack is the spirit of generalization and revolutionary passion. Only the General Council [of the International] can provide them with this, and thus accelerate a truly revolutionary movement here and, in consequence, everywhere.
Marx, Confidential Communication on Bakunin But the working class cannot simply lay hold of the ready-made state machinery, and wield it for its own purposes.
Marx, The Paris Commune Instead of deciding once in three or six years which member of the ruling class was to misrepresent the people in Parliament, universal suffrage was to serve the people, ….
Marx, The Paris Commune A revolution is certainly the most authoritarian thing there is; it is the act whereby one part of the population imposes its will upon the other part by means of rifles, bayonets and cannon — authoritarian means, if such there be at all; and if the victorious party does not want to have fought in vain, it must maintain this rule by means of the terror which its arms inspire in the reactionists.
Would the Paris Commune have lasted a single day if it had not made use of this authority of the armed people against the bourgeois? Should we not, on the contrary, reproach it for not having used it freely enough? Engels, On Authority, Of course the method of presentation must differ in form from that of inquiry. The latter has to appropriate the material in detail, to analyse its different forms of development, to trace out their inner connexion.
Only after this work is done, can the actual movement be adequately described. If this is done successfully, if the life of the subject-matter is ideally reflected as in a mirror, then it may appear as if we had before us a mere a priori construction. Marx, Afterword to the Second German Edition of Capital My dialectic method is not only different from the Hegelian, but is its direct opposite.
With him it is standing on its head. It must be turned right side up again, if you would discover the rational kernel within the mystical shell. Marx, Afterword to the Second German Edition of Capital Political Economy can remain a science only so long as the class-struggle is latent or manifests itself only in isolated and sporadic phenomena. Thenceforth, the class-struggle, practically as well as theoretically, took on more and more outspoken and threatening forms. It sounded the knell of scientific bourgeois economy.
It was thenceforth no longer a question, whether this theorem or that was true, but whether it was useful to capital or harmful, expedient or inexpedient, politically dangerous or not. In place of disinterested inquirers, there were hired prize fighters; in place of genuine scientific research, the bad conscience and the evil intent of apologetic.
Marx, Afterword to the Second German Edition of Capital Of course the method of presentation must differ in form from that of inquiry.
30 Karl Marx Quotes On Economics, Religion, and Leadership
Marx, Afterword to the Second German Edition of Capital The bourgeoisie is just as necessary a precondition for the socialist revolution as is the proletariat itself. Marx, On Social Relations in Russia … defects are inevitable in the first phase of communist society as it is when it has just emerged after prolonged birth pangs from capitalist society. Right can never be higher than the economic structure of society and its cultural development conditioned thereby.
Marx, Critique of the Gotha Program In a higher phase of communist society, … — only then then can the narrow horizon of bourgeois right be crossed in its entirety and society inscribe on its banners: From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs!
Marx, Critique of the Gotha Program Between capitalist and communist society there lies the period of the revolutionary transformation of the one into the other. Corresponding to this is also a political transition period in which the state can be nothing but the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat. Marx, Critique of the Gotha Program Every step of real movement is more important than a dozen programmes.
This feat having been accomplished — as indicated under 1 I dispute its unqualified justification, especially where the Malthusian theory is concerned — the same theories are next transferred back again from organic nature to history and their validity as eternal laws of human society declared to have been proved. Marx, Enegls to Lavrov Let us not, however, flatter ourselves overmuch on account of our human victories over nature. For each such victory nature takes its revenge on us.
Each victory, it is true, in the first place brings about the results we expected, but in the second and third places it has quite different, unforeseen effects which only too often cancel the first. The people who, in Mesopotamia, Greece, Asia Minor and elsewhere, destroyed the forests to obtain cultivable land, never dreamed that by removing along with the forests the collecting centres and reservoirs of moisture they were laying the basis for the present forlorn state of those countries. When the Italians of the Alps used up the pine forests on the southern slopes, so carefully cherished on the northern slopes, they had no inkling that by doing so they were cutting at the roots of the dairy industry in their region; they had still less inkling that they were thereby depriving their mountain springs of water for the greater part of the year, and making it possible for them to pour still more furious torrents on the plains during the rainy seasons.
Those who spread the potato in Europe were not aware that with these farinaceous tubers they were at the same time spreading scrofula. Thus at every step we are reminded that we by no means rule over nature like a conqueror over a foreign people, like someone standing outside nature — but that we, with flesh, blood and brain, belong to nature, and exist in its midst, and that all our mastery of it consists in the fact that we have the advantage over all other creatures of being able to learn its laws and apply them correctly.
And it really is the source — next to nature, which supplies it with the material that it converts into wealth. But it is even infinitely more than this.
It is the prime basic condition for all human existence, and this to such an extent that, in a sense, we have to say that labour created man himself. Engels, The Part Played by Labour in the Transition from Ape to Man When we consider and reflect upon nature at large or the history of mankind or our own intellectual activity, at first we see the picture of an endless entanglement of relations and reactions in which nothing remains what, where and as it was, but everything moves, changes, comes into being and passes away.
This primitive, naive but intrinsically correct conception of the world is that of ancient Greek philosophy, and was first clearly formulated by Heraclitus: But this conception, correctly as it expresses the general character of the picture of appearances as a whole, does not suffice to explain the details of which this picture is made up, and so long as we do not understand these, we have not a clear idea of the whole picture.
In order to understand these details we must detach them from their natural or historical connection and examine each one separately, its nature, special causes, effects, etc. That is the only materialist conception of the matter.
Engels, The Theory of Force Neither of us cares a straw for popularity. Let me cite one proof of this: When Engels and I first joined the secret communist society, we did so only on condition that anything conducive to a superstitious belief in authority be eliminated from the Rules. Marx, Letter to Blos It is becoming equally imperative to bring the individual spheres of knowledge into the correct connection with one another.
In doing so, however, natural science enters the field of theory and here the methods of empiricism will not work, here only theoretical thinking can be of assistance. But theoretical thinking is an innate quality only as regards natural capacity. This natural capacity must be developed, improved, and for its improvement there is as yet no other means than the study of previous philosophy. Engels, On Dialectics Dialectics constitutes the most important form of thinking for present-day natural science, for it alone offers the analogue for, and thereby the method of explaining, the evolutionary processes occurring in nature, inter-connections in general, and transitions from one field of investigation to another.
Engels, On Dialectics The Greeks were not yet advanced enough to dissect, analyse nature — nature is still viewed as a whole, in general. The universal connection of natural phenomena is not proved in regard to particular; to the Greeks it is the result of direct contemplation.
Herein lies the inadequacy of Greek philosophy, … But herein also lies its superiority over all its subsequent metaphysical opponents. If in regard to the Greeks metaphysics was right in particulars, in regard to metaphysics the Greeks were right in general. Engels, On Dialectics For nearly 40 years we have raised to prominence the idea of the class struggle as the immediate driving force of history, and particularly the class struggle between bourgeois and the proletariat as the great lever of the modern social revolution; … At the founding of the International, we expressly formulated the battle cry: The emancipation of the working class must be the work of the working class itself.
Marx and Engels, Strategy and Tactics of the Class Struggle Nature is the proof of dialectics, and it must be said for modern science that it has furnished this proof with very rich materials increasingly daily, and thus has shown that, in the last resort, Nature works dialectically and not metaphysically; that she does not move in the eternal oneness of a perpetually recurring circle, but goes through a real historical evolution.
Marx, Letter To Vera Zasulich The history of the decline of primitive communities it would be a mistake to place them all on the same level; as in geological formations, these historical forms contain a whole series of primary, secondary, tertiary types, etc.
All we have seen so far are some rather meagre outlines. The Marx family was Jewish but was forced to convert to Christianity. As a young boy, Marx was a mediocre student.
He was homeschooled until the age of 12, after which he studied at Friedrich Wilhelm Gymnasium in Trier for five years. He then went to the University of Bonn to study law, a decision his father imposed on him. He also served as the co-president of the Trier Tavern Club drinking society.
Eventually, his grades started to plummet. He got imprisoned for public drunkenness and engaging in a fight with another student. Naturally, his poor academic performance and co-curricular activities at the University worried his parents. After his first year, they transferred him to the more academically-inclined Frederick William University in Berlin. Becoming a Revolutionary Karl Marx studied law and philosophy and was exposed to the teachings of late professor Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel.
After completing his degree, Marx struggled to find a career in the academia due to his political background. He moved to Cologne and started a career as a journalist.
He became a writer — and eventually the editor — of Rheinische Zeitung, a liberal democratic newspaper.