Center-State Relations - Political Science Study Material & Notes
Public relations describes the various methods a company uses to such policy guidelines in order to evaluate proposed strategies and Financial relations involves communicating not only with a in public relations, as do government agencies at the federal, state, and local levels. . Help Center. and other officers of the Union and state governments . an opportunity to see and assess the intensity centre and the states and financial status of centre- state financial relations. Sometimes, critical events like the. Kirk Hallahan at Colorado State University development of public relations theory and practice. the need for PR theorists to critically re-examine many of the central .. nutrition, financial privacy, or highway safety enter the arena of public nation's senior-level corporate public relations officers.
This involves such functions as employee relations, stockholder and investor relations, media relations, and community relations.
Public relations may function to educate certain audiences about many things relevant to the organization—including the business in general, new legislation, and how to use a particular product—as well as to overcome misconceptions and prejudices. For example, a nonprofit organization may attempt to educate the public regarding a certain point of view, while trade associations may undertake educational programs regarding particular industries and their products and practices.
While a specific public relations project or campaign may be undertaken proactively or reactively to manage some sort of image crisisthe first basic step in either case involves analysis and research to identify all the relevant factors of the situation.
In this first step, the organization gains an understanding of its various constituencies and the key factors that are influencing their perceptions of the organization. In the second step, the organization establishes an overall policy with respect to the campaign.
Financial Relations between Centre and State | India
This involves defining goals and desired outcomes, as well as the constraints under which the campaign will operate. It is necessary to establish such policy guidelines in order to evaluate proposed strategies and tactics as well as the overall success of the campaign.
In step three, the organization outlines its strategies and tactics. Using its knowledge of the target audiences and its own established policies, the organization develops specific programs to achieve the desired objectives. Step four involves actual communication with the targeted public. The organization then employs specific public relations techniques, such as press conferences or special events, to reach the intended audience.
Finally, in step five the organization receives feedback from its public. How have they reacted to the public relations campaign? Are there some unexpected developments?
In the final step, the organization assesses the program and makes any necessary adjustments. As a result, there are several specific areas of public relations. Product Public Relations Public relations and marketing work together closely when it comes to promoting a new or existing product or service. Public relations plays an important role in new product introductions by creating awareness, differentiating the product from other similar products, and even changing consumer behavior.
Public relations can help introduce new products through staging a variety of special events and handling sensitive situations. For example, when the Prince Matchabelli division of Chesebrough-Pond's USA introduced a new men's cologne, there were twenty-one other men's fragrances being introduced that year. Similarly, when Coleco introduced its Cabbage Patch Kids dolls, public relations helped increase awareness through licensed tie-in products, trade show exhibits, press parties, and even window displays in Cartier jewelry stores.
Public relations is often called on to give existing products and services a boost by creating or renewing visibility.
For example, the California Raisins Advisory Board organized a national tour featuring live performances by the California Dancing Raisins to maintain interest in raisins during a summer-long advertising hiatus. The tour generated national and local publicity through media events, advance publicity, trade promotions, and media interviews with performer Ray Charles.
Other public relations programs for existing products involve stimulating secondary demand—as when Campbell Soup Co. Public relations can interest the media in familiar products and services in a number of ways, including holding seminars for journalists, staging a special media day, and supplying the media with printed materials ranging from "backgrounders" in-depth news releases to booklets and brochures.
Changes in existing products offer additional public relations opportunities to focus consumers' attention. An effective public relations campaign can help to properly position a product and overcome negative perceptions on the part of the general public.
Employee Relations Employees are one of the more important audiences a company has, and an ongoing public relations program is necessary to maintain employee good will as well as to uphold the company's image and reputation among its employees. The essence of a good employee relations program is keeping employees informed and providing them with channels of communication to upper levels of management. Bechtel Group, a privately held complex of operating companies, published an annual report for its employees to keep them informed about the company's operations.
The company used surveys to determine what information employees considered useful. A range of other communication devices were used, including a monthly tabloid and magazine, a quarterly video magazine, local newsletters, bulletin boards, a call-in telephone service, and "brown bag" lunches where live presentations were made about the company. Suggestion systems are another effective way to improve employee-management communications.
Other public relations programs focusing on employees include training them as company public relations representatives; explaining benefits programs to them; offering them educational, volunteer, and citizenship opportunities; and staging special events such as picnics or open houses for them.
Central State Relation - Legislative, Administrative and Financial
Other programs can improve performance and increase employee pride and motivation. Public relations can also play a role in recruiting new employees; handling reorganizations, relocations, and mergers; and resolving labor disputes. Purchase Tax Taxes on lotteries, betting and gambling State Surcharges and Cesses so far as they relate to supply of goods and services The Constitution of India has also been amended accordingly. This fundamental reordering of federal fiscal relations for the cause of common good shows the strength and resolve of the federal structure.
This convergence for the cause of larger public good has been made possible, initially due to the mechanism of the Empowered Committee of Ministers EC and later the GST Council. The very fact that there has been no need to resort to voting to take any decisions taken till now in 18 meetings held so far reflects the spirit of "One Nation, One Aspiration, One Determination". In this context it is important to note that credit for the new law does not go to one party or one government but it's a shared legacy of all.
These features signify spirit of cooperative federalism. Harmonisation of GST laws across the country: Consequently, all the laws have virtually identical provisions. GSTN, a not-for-profit, non-government company promoted jointly by the Central and State Governments, is the common compliance portal and the taxpayers shall interface with all states as well as Centre through this portal.
Center-State Relations – Political Science Study Material & Notes
Other significant areas, where such co-operation has been displayed by the Centre and States are as under: Joint Capacity Building Efforts: Cross Empowerment of Officers of Centre as well as States: All money bills passed by the legislature, then are to be reserved for the consideration of the President.
In Centre state financial relations Finance Commission plays an important role. According to the Constitution the President is empowered to set up a Finance Commission after every five years to make recommendations to him about the distribution of net proceeds of taxes to be divided between the centre and the states. The Commission is also required to suggest the principles on which grant-in-aid of the revenues should to be given to the state governments out of Consolidated Fund of India.
It is also required to give its view on any matter which may be referred to it by the President in the interest of sound finances.
So far President of India has been regularly setting up such a commission after every five years and each time its terms of reference has been made wider and wider. By and large, Union Government has also been accepting its recommendations and as such it has adopted liberal attitude about the recommendations of the Commission.
The Commission has touched even such subjects as debt burdens of the states, returns of public section undertakings, etc. But even then there is demand by some states that distribution of resources should be such that these favour relatively poor states. The role of Finance Commission has considerably eclipsed because increasing role of Planning Commission through which more funds are transferred to the states than through the Finance Commission.
Not only this but it is Planning Commission which regulates discretionary grants and not the Finance Commission. In centre-state relations a very significant role is being played by Planning Commission. It has even reduced the importance of Finance Commission. It is an extra constitutional body. It has more resources to disburse than the Finance Commission.
It decides plan outlay of each state on which depend all developmental activities of the states.
Since its meetings are to be presided over by the Prime Minister, therefore, it is virtually dominated by the central government, through which funds flow to the state government.
Grand-in-Aid to the States: According to the Constitution states are to receive grant-in-aid from the Centre out of Central revenue. It is to be given with the approval of the parliament to a deserving state out of Consolidated Fund of India. The amount in each case is to be decided by the Parliament. The Central Government also gives grants both capital and recurring to the states for implementation of certain schemes like uplift of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.
The amount to be paid in each case is to be decided by the President of India. Weak Position of the States: In administrative, legislative and financial matters, as compared with the centre, the position of the states is very weak.
The states are always to look forward to the centre and such a situation continues no matter whether same political party is in power both at the centre and the states, or there are different political parties in position and authority at these two levels of Indian federation. In financial field, the states are to depend on the central government even for their development. Planning Commission, which finally decides about plan projects plays a big role in the development of the states, though it is the creation of and is controlled by the central government.