Theories of Interpersonal Relationship
In physics and philosophy, a relational theory (or relationism) is a framework to understand Several attempts have been made to formulate a full Machian theory, but most physicists think that none have so far succeeded. These systems of relationships, where relational states are relatively uniform, bounded and distinct. Knapp's relational development model portrays relationship development as a ten step process . of bonding too quickly; meaning, sufficient breadth and depth (see: Social penetration theory) was not established during the previous stages. Interpersonal relationship refers to a strong association amongst individuals. Let us go through the theories of interpersonal relationship development in detail.
In one and probably more of those planet level aggregations, energy flows and chemical interactions could produce dynamic, self replicating systems which we call life. Strictly speaking, phase transitions can both manifest correlation and differentiation events, in the direction of diminution of degrees of freedom, and in the opposite direction disruption of correlations.
However, the expanding universe picture presents a framework in which there appears to be a direction of phase transitions toward differentiation and correlation, in the universe as a whole, over time. This picture of progressive development of order in the observable universe as a whole is at variance with the general framework of the Steady State theory of the universe, now generally abandoned.
It also appears to be at variance with an understanding of the Second law of thermodynamics which would view the universe as an isolated system which would at some posited equilibrium be in a maximally random set of configurations.
Two prominent cosmologists have provided slightly varying but compatible explanations of how the expansion of the universe allows ordered, or correlated, relational regimes to arise and persist, notwithstanding the second law of thermodynamics.
David Layzer  and Eric Chaisson. Chaisson summarizes the argument as "In an expanding universe actual entropy … increases less than the maximum possible entropy"  thus allowing for, or requiring, ordered negentropic relationships to arise and persist. Chaisson depicts the universe as a non-equilibrium process, in which energy flows into and through ordered systems, such as galaxies, stars, and life processes.
This provides a cosmological basis for non-equilibrium thermodynamicstreated elsewhere to some extent in this encyclopedia at this time. In terms which unite non-equilibrium thermodynamics language and relational analyses language, patterns of processes arise and are evident as ordered, dynamic relational regimes. Basic levels[ edit ] There seems to be agreement that life is a manifestation of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, both as to individual living creatures and as to aggregates of such creatures, or ecosystems.
In such systems, energy feeds through a stable, or correlated, set of dynamic processes, both engendering the system and maintaining the stability of the ordered, dynamic relational regime. A familiar example of such a structure is the Red Spot of Jupiter. In the s, Eric Schnieder and J.
Kaye  began to develop the concept of life working off differentials, or gradients e. Schneider and Dorion Sagan have since elaborated on the view of life dynamics and the ecosystem in Into the Cool. As noted above, Chaisson  has provided a conceptual grounding for the existence of the differentials, or gradients, off which, in the view of Kaye, Schneider, Sagan and others, life works. Those differentials and gradients arise in the ordered structures such as suns, chemical systems, and the like created by correlation processes entailed in the expansion and cooling processes of the universe.
Two investigators, Robert Ulanowicz  and Stuart Kauffman. In this construct, a group of elements catalyse reactions in a cyclical, or topologically circular, fashion. Several investigators have used these insights to suggest essential elements of a thermodynamic definition of the life process, which might briefly be summarized as stable, patterned correlated processes which intake and dissipate energy, and reproduce themselves.
In this approach, an ecosystem is a system of networks of relationships a common viewpoint at presentwhich can be quantified and depicted at a basic level in terms of the degrees of order or organization manifested in the systems.
Two prominent investigators, Lynn Margulis and, more fully, Leo Buss  have developed a view of the evolved life structure as exhibiting tiered levels of dynamic aggregation of life units. In each level of aggregation, the component elements have mutually beneficial, or complementary, relationships.
Social organization[ edit ] Social network theory has in recent decades expanded into a large field reaching across a large range of topics.
Among other things, social network analyses are now applied to political, professional, military, and other closely attended subject matters. The internet, because of its low cost, broad reach, and combinatorial capacity, has become a prominent example of social networking, as is evident in this encyclopedia, YouTube, Facebook, and other recent developments. As a readily available illustration of a dynamic relational network system, at the human technology level, the internet has become a subject for analyses of how networks of relationships can arise and function.
Related areas of current interest[ edit ] Second law of thermodynamics[ edit ] The development of non equilibrium thermodynamics and the observations of cosmological generation of ordered systems, identified above, have engendered proposed modifications in the interpretation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, as compared with the earlier interpretations on the late 19th and the 20th century.
For example, Chaisson and Layzer have advanced reconciliations of the concept of entropy with the cosmological creation of order. In another approach, Schneider and D. Sagan, in Into the Cool and other publications, depict the organization of life, and some other phenomena such as benard cellsas entropy generating phenomena which facilitate the dissipation, or reduction, of gradients without in this treatment visibly getting to the prior issue of how gradients have arisen.
The ubiquity of power law and log-normal distribution manifestations in the universe[ edit ] The development of network theories has yielded observations of widespread, or ubiquitous, appearance of power law and log-normal distributions of events in such networks, and in nature generally.
Both Buchanan and Barabasi reported the demonstrations of a variety of investigators that such power law distributions arise in phase transitions. In Barabasi's characterization "…if the system is forced to undergo a phase transition … then power laws emerge — nature's unmistakable sign that chaos is departing in favor of order.
The theory of phase transitions told us loud and clear that the road from disorder to order is maintained by the powerful forces of self organization and paved with power laws. Emergence[ edit ] The relational regime approach includes a straightforward derivation of the concept of emergence.What Is Your Attachment Style?
From the perspective of relational theories of order, emergent phenomena could be said to be relational effects of an aggregated and differentiated system made of many elements, in a field of relationships external to the considered system, when the elements of the considered system, taken separately and independently, would not have such effects.
For example, the stable structure of a rock, which allows very few degrees of freedom for its elements, can be seen to have a variety of external manifestations depending on the relational system in which it may be found.
It could impede fluid flow, as a part of a retaining wall. If it were placed in a wind tunnel, it could be said to induce turbulence in the flow of air around it. In contests among rivalrous humans, it has sometimes been a convenient skull cracker. Or it might become, though itself a composite, an element of another solid, having similarly reduced degrees of freedom for its components, as would a pebble in a matrix making up cement.
See the composite material article for a useful description of how varying components can, in a composite, yield effects within an external field of use, or relational setting, which the components alone would not yield.
Social penetration theory was not established during the previous stages.
Knapp's relational development model
A common solution to differentiating is for each partner to give the other some space, though extreme differentiating can lead to a damaged relationship. Communication is limited to safe topics. This stage is marked by less total communication in terms of number of interactions, depth and breadth of topics discussed, and communication occurs in shorter durations.
Expressions of love and commitment also decrease. Communication in this stage sees partners saying very little because they "know" how the other person will respond. Individuals will engage in imagined interactions to predict a conversation with their partner.
Interpersonal relationship - Wikipedia
At this stage, there is still some hope that the relationship can be revived. However, in many cases there are too many costs accumulating and, therefore, most do not stay at this stage for long. A key reason why individuals stay in this stage is to avoid the pain associated with terminating the relationship. When actual avoidance cannot take place, however, partners will simply avoid each other while they're together, treating the other as if they didn't exist.
Essentially, the individuals in the relationship become separate from one another physically, emotionally, and mentally. When there is communication, it is often marked by antagonism or unfriendliness "I just don't want to see or talk to you". Different forms of distancing are also common at this stage: No longer are they both receiving a mutually satisfying outcome from being with one another. Neither one of them is happy and the relationship must come to an end.
In this model, this step is unavoidable and relationships can terminate at any time. Termination can occur due to physical separation, growing socially or psychologically apart, or the death of one of the partners.
Communication in this stage is marked by distance an attempt to put psychological and physical barriers between partners and disassociation messages that prepare one or both parties for their life without the other. Movement is generally systematic and sequential. This does not suggest that the process is linear or unchangeable; the phenomena is never at rest and is continually in flux.
People do generally follow the same pattern, however. Each stage contains important presuppositions for the next. Sequencing makes forecasting adjacent stages easier.
Skipping steps is risky due to potentially losing information that would have been provided in the skipped step. Movement may be forward. Any movement toward greater levels of intimacy is considered "forward. Movement may be backward. Backward movement can be the result of moving too quickly, thus preventing any sort of stabilization.
Movement occurs within stages. Movement is always to a new state. Partners can go through the same stages more than once, but they can never truly go back to "the way things were. In an effort to determine which stage partners are in, Welch and Rubin gave partners a list of behaviors and asked them to indicate the extent to which each behavior was characteristic of their relationship.
Interpersonal Communication 3rd ed. Building Interpersonal Communication Skills. Interpersonal Communication and Human Relationships 7th ed. From Greeting to Goodbye.
Retrieved 23 October Human Communication Research, 11, —